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Refractive errors, intraocular pressure, and glaucoma in a white population.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine the relation of refractive errors to glaucoma and intraocular pressure (IOP) in a defined white population.

DESIGN

Population-based cross-sectional and follow-up study.

PARTICIPANTS

Persons aged 43 to 86 years living in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin (n = 4926).

METHODS

All participants received a standardized assessment of refraction, IOP, and glaucoma at baseline (1988-1990), with IOP remeasured 5 years later (1993-1995). Refraction was defined at baseline as follows: myopia as spherical equivalent of -1.00 diopters (D) or less, emmetropia as -0.75 to +0.75 D, and hyperopia as +1.00 D or more.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

Relation of baseline refraction to prevalent glaucoma (defined from IOP, optic disc, and visual field criteria) and incident ocular hypertension (defined as IOP more than 21 mmHg at the 5-year examination in eyes with IOP of 21 mmHg or less at baseline).

RESULTS

A myopic refraction was correlated with increasing IOP at baseline (P < 0.001). After controlling for age and gender, persons with myopia were 60% more likely to have prevalent glaucoma than those with emmetropia (odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1, 2.3). In contrast, controlling for age, gender, and baseline IOP, persons with hyperopia were 40% more likely to have incident ocular hypertension than those who were emmetropic at baseline (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0, 2.0). Myopia was not related to incident ocular hypertension.

CONCLUSIONS

In these population-based data, there was a cross-sectional association of myopia with higher IOP and prevalent glaucoma. Similar associations have been found in previous studies. Hyperopia may be associated with 5-year risk of ocular hypertension, a finding that needs further investigation.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

    , , ,

    Source

    Ophthalmology 110:1 2003 Jan pg 211-7

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    European Continental Ancestry Group
    Female
    Follow-Up Studies
    Glaucoma
    Humans
    Hyperopia
    Intraocular Pressure
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Myopia
    Ocular Hypertension
    Prevalence
    Wisconsin

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    12511368

    Citation

    Wong, Tien Yin, et al. "Refractive Errors, Intraocular Pressure, and Glaucoma in a White Population." Ophthalmology, vol. 110, no. 1, 2003, pp. 211-7.
    Wong TY, Klein BE, Klein R, et al. Refractive errors, intraocular pressure, and glaucoma in a white population. Ophthalmology. 2003;110(1):211-7.
    Wong, T. Y., Klein, B. E., Klein, R., Knudtson, M., & Lee, K. E. (2003). Refractive errors, intraocular pressure, and glaucoma in a white population. Ophthalmology, 110(1), pp. 211-7.
    Wong TY, et al. Refractive Errors, Intraocular Pressure, and Glaucoma in a White Population. Ophthalmology. 2003;110(1):211-7. PubMed PMID: 12511368.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Refractive errors, intraocular pressure, and glaucoma in a white population. AU - Wong,Tien Yin, AU - Klein,Barbara E K, AU - Klein,Ronald, AU - Knudtson,Michael, AU - Lee,Kristine E, PY - 2003/1/4/pubmed PY - 2003/1/17/medline PY - 2003/1/4/entrez SP - 211 EP - 7 JF - Ophthalmology JO - Ophthalmology VL - 110 IS - 1 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation of refractive errors to glaucoma and intraocular pressure (IOP) in a defined white population. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional and follow-up study. PARTICIPANTS: Persons aged 43 to 86 years living in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin (n = 4926). METHODS: All participants received a standardized assessment of refraction, IOP, and glaucoma at baseline (1988-1990), with IOP remeasured 5 years later (1993-1995). Refraction was defined at baseline as follows: myopia as spherical equivalent of -1.00 diopters (D) or less, emmetropia as -0.75 to +0.75 D, and hyperopia as +1.00 D or more. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relation of baseline refraction to prevalent glaucoma (defined from IOP, optic disc, and visual field criteria) and incident ocular hypertension (defined as IOP more than 21 mmHg at the 5-year examination in eyes with IOP of 21 mmHg or less at baseline). RESULTS: A myopic refraction was correlated with increasing IOP at baseline (P < 0.001). After controlling for age and gender, persons with myopia were 60% more likely to have prevalent glaucoma than those with emmetropia (odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1, 2.3). In contrast, controlling for age, gender, and baseline IOP, persons with hyperopia were 40% more likely to have incident ocular hypertension than those who were emmetropic at baseline (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0, 2.0). Myopia was not related to incident ocular hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: In these population-based data, there was a cross-sectional association of myopia with higher IOP and prevalent glaucoma. Similar associations have been found in previous studies. Hyperopia may be associated with 5-year risk of ocular hypertension, a finding that needs further investigation. SN - 0161-6420 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12511368/Refractive_errors_intraocular_pressure_and_glaucoma_in_a_white_population_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0161-6420(02)01260-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -