Chemical and sensorial aroma characterization of freshly distilled Calvados. 2. Identification of volatile compounds and key odorants.J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Jan 15; 51(2):433-42.JA
Eight samples of freshly distilled Calvados were extracted using pentane. Gas chromatography with either a mass spectrometer or flame ionization detector was used to determine the volatile compounds composition of the extracts. More than 120 molecules were identified in Calvados and then correlated with results obtained by olfactometric analysis in our earlier work [Guichard, H.; Lemesle, S.; Ledauphin, J.; Barillier, D.; Picoche, B. Chemical and Sensorial Aroma Characterization of Freshly Distilled Calvados. 1. Evaluation of Quality and Defects on the Basis of Key Odorants by Olfactometry and Sensory Analysis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002, 50, 424-432 (preceding paper in this issue)]. Of these, 16 of the 19 molecules that constitute the "aroma skeleton" were identified, including 5 esters, 2 ketones, 5 phenolic derivatives, 2 alcohols, and 2 carboxylic acids. Numerous compounds were also associated with odors found in part 1. These molecules can be considered as being responsible for the good quality of Calvados or, in contrast, for defects. Relative levels of some major olfactive compounds were also estimated and tentatively compared with olfactometric indices found in part 1. A good correlation was found in many cases. Two important markers of defects in Calvados were also identified. 3-Methylbut-2-en-1-ol leads to an "herbaceous" defect, and 1,1,3-triethoxypropane seems to give an "acrolein" defect in the product. "Floral" notes of the aroma of freshly distilled Calvados seem to be due to the presence of phenolic derivatives such as 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylethyl acetate. Low-molecular-weight esters such as ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, and 3-methylbutyl acetate give, in general, the "fruity" notes. However, the overall aroma of Calvados seems likely to be a subtle balance of various functionalized compounds.