Duplex imaging analysis of the long saphenous vein reflux: basis for strategy of endovenous obliteration treatment.Int Angiol. 2002 Dec; 21(4):333-6.IA
The purpose of this study was to characterize greater saphenous vein (GSV) reflux in order to better define indications for appropriate endovascular obliteration treatment.
Color-flow duplex imaging was used prospectively to categorize 133 lower limbs of 102 consecutive outpatients, presenting with chronic superficial vein disease associated with GSV incompetence. Sapheno-femoral junction (SFJ) and tributaries morphology and hemodynamics, and GSV main trunk reflux extent were assessed.
GSV reflux was related to terminal valve incompetence in 70 (52.3%) limbs, to sub-terminal valve incompetence in 37 (27.8%), and to segmental incompetence of the GSV trunk in 26 (19.6%). Reflux originated from common femoral vein (CFV) and/or SFJ tributaries and/or GSV collaterals, including multiple origins combinations. CFV was the reflux origin in 77 (57.9%). GSV reflux arose from SFJ or trunk tributaries in 69 (51.9%) and 32 (24%), limbs respectively. Circumflex and superficial epigastric veins were involved in 65.2% and 50.7% respectively of the SFJ tributaries. GSV reflux extended down to the mid-third of the calf or below in only 45 cases (33.7%). The age of the patients was not correlated with reflux origin.
Preliminary analysis suggests that in 2/3 of the cases, endovenous obliteration treatment should extent from the thigh to just below the knee. Furthermore, in order to preserve GSV competent valves and collateral veins drainage, treatment should start just below the main SFJ tributary when the terminal valve is still competent, and just below the main branches connection when only the GSV trunk is incompetent.