Lipoprotein alterations in hemodialysis: differences between diabetic and nondiabetic patients.Metabolism 2003; 52(1):116-21M
Both renal failure and type 2 diabetes may contribute synergistically to the dyslipemia of diabetic renal failure with the development of atherosclerosis as the possible consequence. It has not yet been conclusively evaluated whether diabetic patients with end-stage renal failure under maintenance hemodialysis (HD) show accentuated alterations in plasma lipids and lipoproteins in comparison to nondiabetics under HD. These abnormalities would involve hepatic lipase activity and the regulation of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether type 2 diabetic patients undergoing HD exhibited a lipid-lipoprotein profile different from that of nondiabetic hemodialyzed patients. We compared plasma lipids, apoprotein (apo) A-I and B, and lipoprotein parameters among 3 groups: 25 type 2 diabetics, 25 nondiabetics, both undergoing HD, and 20 healthy control subjects. Intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were isolated by sequential ultracentrifugation. Hepatic lipase activity was measured in postheparin plasma. Both groups of HD patients showed higher triglyceride and IDL cholesterol (P <.001), and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P <.01) and apo A-I (P <.001) levels compared to the control group, even after adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI). However, no differences were found in lipid, lipoprotein, and apoprotein concentrations between diabetic and nondiabetic HD patients, except for high LDL triglyceride content of diabetic HD patients (P <.01). Nondiabetics undergoing HD also presented higher LDL triglyceride levels than controls (P <.05). LDL triglyceride correlated with plasma triglycerides (r = 0.51, P <.001). A lower LDL cholesterol/apo B ratio was found in each group of HD patients in comparison to controls (P <.02). Comparing the diabetic and nondiabetic patients, hepatic lipase activity remained unchanged, but significantly lower than control subjects (P <.001). Hepatic lipase correlated with log-triglyceride (r = -0.31, P <.01), IDL cholesterol (r = -0.41, P <.001), and LDL triglyceride (r = -0.32, P <.01). In conclusion, both diabetic and nondiabetic HD patients shared unfavorable alterations in lipid-lipoprotein profile not different between them but different from a healthy control group. The only difference between the groups of HD patients was a significant LDL triglyceride enrichment, which correlated negatively with hepatic lipase activity. Lipoprotein abnormalities in HD patients would enhance their risk for the development of atherosclerosis.