Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Uptake and accumulation of dissolved, radiolabeled nodularin in Baltic Sea zooplankton.
Environ Toxicol. 2003 Feb; 18(1):52-60.ET

Abstract

The mass occurrence of toxic cyanobacteria is a recurrent phenomenon in the Baltic Sea. Grazers may obtain toxins either through ingestion or by direct exposure to dissolved toxins. Despite this, there is little knowledge about the accumulation of cyanobacterial toxins in planktonic organisms present during these blooms. Toxin analyses of tissue samples are complicated to carry out and, because of the small size of microscopic planktonic organisms, often difficult to execute. Therefore, we wanted to use a precise and sensitive method to study toxin uptake and accumulation in zooplankton. We used chemically tritiated nodularin, (3)H-dihydronodularin, to study the uptake of dissolved nodularin, a cyanobacterial hepatotoxin produced by Nodularia spumigena. Cultures of the calanoid copepods Acartia tonsa and Eurytemora affinis, and an oligotrich ciliate Strombidium sulcatum were exposed to (3)H-dihydronodularin in filtered seawater, using naturally occurring concentrations of dissolved nodularin (5 microg L(-1)). All three species took up measurable amounts of radiolabeled nodularin. After 48 h we detected 0.37 +/- 0.22 microg toxin g C(-1) (mean +/- sd) in A. tonsa and 0.60 +/- 0.15 microg toxin g C(-1) in E. affinis, whereas 1.55 +/- 0.50 microg toxin g C(-1) was detected in S. sulcatum after 24 h. The minimum bioconcentration factor (BCF) of (3)H-dihydronodularin was 12 for A. tonsa and 18 for E. affinis. For S. sulcatum our results indicate a maximum BCF of 22. However, because the uptake studies for this species were done in the presence of bacteria, possible particulate transfer cannot be excluded. Nevertheless, our results indicate that dissolved nodularin can be taken up by planktonic organisms. Therefore, the vectorial transport of dissolved toxins to higher trophic levels seems possible, even if some planktonic grazers would avoid feeding on toxic cyanobacteria filaments.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Finnish Institute of Marine Research, PO Box 33, FIN-00931 Helsinki, Finland. miina.karjalainen@fimr.iNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

12539144

Citation

Karjalainen, M, et al. "Uptake and Accumulation of Dissolved, Radiolabeled Nodularin in Baltic Sea Zooplankton." Environmental Toxicology, vol. 18, no. 1, 2003, pp. 52-60.
Karjalainen M, Reinikainen M, Lindvall F, et al. Uptake and accumulation of dissolved, radiolabeled nodularin in Baltic Sea zooplankton. Environ Toxicol. 2003;18(1):52-60.
Karjalainen, M., Reinikainen, M., Lindvall, F., Spoof, L., & Meriluoto, J. A. (2003). Uptake and accumulation of dissolved, radiolabeled nodularin in Baltic Sea zooplankton. Environmental Toxicology, 18(1), 52-60.
Karjalainen M, et al. Uptake and Accumulation of Dissolved, Radiolabeled Nodularin in Baltic Sea Zooplankton. Environ Toxicol. 2003;18(1):52-60. PubMed PMID: 12539144.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Uptake and accumulation of dissolved, radiolabeled nodularin in Baltic Sea zooplankton. AU - Karjalainen,M, AU - Reinikainen,M, AU - Lindvall,F, AU - Spoof,L, AU - Meriluoto,J A O, PY - 2003/1/23/pubmed PY - 2003/5/7/medline PY - 2003/1/23/entrez SP - 52 EP - 60 JF - Environmental toxicology JO - Environ Toxicol VL - 18 IS - 1 N2 - The mass occurrence of toxic cyanobacteria is a recurrent phenomenon in the Baltic Sea. Grazers may obtain toxins either through ingestion or by direct exposure to dissolved toxins. Despite this, there is little knowledge about the accumulation of cyanobacterial toxins in planktonic organisms present during these blooms. Toxin analyses of tissue samples are complicated to carry out and, because of the small size of microscopic planktonic organisms, often difficult to execute. Therefore, we wanted to use a precise and sensitive method to study toxin uptake and accumulation in zooplankton. We used chemically tritiated nodularin, (3)H-dihydronodularin, to study the uptake of dissolved nodularin, a cyanobacterial hepatotoxin produced by Nodularia spumigena. Cultures of the calanoid copepods Acartia tonsa and Eurytemora affinis, and an oligotrich ciliate Strombidium sulcatum were exposed to (3)H-dihydronodularin in filtered seawater, using naturally occurring concentrations of dissolved nodularin (5 microg L(-1)). All three species took up measurable amounts of radiolabeled nodularin. After 48 h we detected 0.37 +/- 0.22 microg toxin g C(-1) (mean +/- sd) in A. tonsa and 0.60 +/- 0.15 microg toxin g C(-1) in E. affinis, whereas 1.55 +/- 0.50 microg toxin g C(-1) was detected in S. sulcatum after 24 h. The minimum bioconcentration factor (BCF) of (3)H-dihydronodularin was 12 for A. tonsa and 18 for E. affinis. For S. sulcatum our results indicate a maximum BCF of 22. However, because the uptake studies for this species were done in the presence of bacteria, possible particulate transfer cannot be excluded. Nevertheless, our results indicate that dissolved nodularin can be taken up by planktonic organisms. Therefore, the vectorial transport of dissolved toxins to higher trophic levels seems possible, even if some planktonic grazers would avoid feeding on toxic cyanobacteria filaments. SN - 1520-4081 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12539144/Uptake_and_accumulation_of_dissolved_radiolabeled_nodularin_in_Baltic_Sea_zooplankton_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -