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Risk factors of high lead level in Bangkok children.
J Med Assoc Thai. 2002 Nov; 85 Suppl 4:S1049-58.JM

Abstract

Lead poisoning is the most important pollution in children which affects the developing brain and IQ. Previous studies of blood lead levels in Thai children were all higher than 10 microg/dl.

OBJECTIVE

To identify risk factors and impacts associated with high lead levels (>10 microg/dl) in Bangkok children

MATERIAL AND METHOD

The longitudinal study (n = 84) followed blood lead levels of a birth cohort, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 72 months of age from 1993 to 1999. Multiple cross-sectional studies (1992-1996) comprising children under 15 years of age attending the outpatient clinic, Ramathibodi Hospital (n = 511), kindergartens (n = 60), 6 primary school students (n = 564) and secondary school students (n = 377) in Bangkok, were recruited. Blood lead levels were assessed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Questionnaires to identify risk factors were completed by parents of under 2-year-old children and primary school students. IQ was assessed in the longitudinal group at 2 years of age and in primary students.

RESULTS

The mean blood lead levels (microg/dl) were 5.57 +/- 2.31 at birth, 5.03 +/- 2.21 at 6 years of age in a cohort study, 6.74 +/- 2.02 in kindergartens, 9.26 +/- 3.68 in primary students and 9.03 +/- 3.65 in secondary school students. The proportion of high blood lead increased with age from 1 per cent at birth to 35 per cent in secondary school students. In the kindergartens and secondary school, males had higher lead levels than females. In the primary school study, the significant risk factors (Odd Ratio-OR) of high lead level were; living in Bangkok (6.18), male (1.67), maternal labour workers (1.79), family income lower than 3,000 baht/month (2.24), a crowded family with more than 9 members (2.22), household members whose present occupation was related to printing (4.55) or lead smelting previously (4.85). Children in the high lead group had lower weight (p = 0.0000) and height (p = 0.0000) and were slow learners determined by their teachers (p = 0.0332).

CONCLUSION

The blood lead levels in Bangkok children were not high and have tended to decrease following the reduction of air lead levels because of unleaded gasoline usage. A periodic surveillance survey is still necessary to monitor blood lead level in Bangkok children especially among those with risk factors.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

12549775

Citation

Ruangkanchanasetr, Suwanna, and Joseph Suepiantham. "Risk Factors of High Lead Level in Bangkok Children." Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet Thangphaet, vol. 85 Suppl 4, 2002, pp. S1049-58.
Ruangkanchanasetr S, Suepiantham J. Risk factors of high lead level in Bangkok children. J Med Assoc Thai. 2002;85 Suppl 4:S1049-58.
Ruangkanchanasetr, S., & Suepiantham, J. (2002). Risk factors of high lead level in Bangkok children. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet Thangphaet, 85 Suppl 4, S1049-58.
Ruangkanchanasetr S, Suepiantham J. Risk Factors of High Lead Level in Bangkok Children. J Med Assoc Thai. 2002;85 Suppl 4:S1049-58. PubMed PMID: 12549775.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Risk factors of high lead level in Bangkok children. AU - Ruangkanchanasetr,Suwanna, AU - Suepiantham,Joseph, PY - 2003/1/29/pubmed PY - 2003/2/14/medline PY - 2003/1/29/entrez SP - S1049 EP - 58 JF - Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet JO - J Med Assoc Thai VL - 85 Suppl 4 N2 - UNLABELLED: Lead poisoning is the most important pollution in children which affects the developing brain and IQ. Previous studies of blood lead levels in Thai children were all higher than 10 microg/dl. OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors and impacts associated with high lead levels (>10 microg/dl) in Bangkok children MATERIAL AND METHOD: The longitudinal study (n = 84) followed blood lead levels of a birth cohort, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 72 months of age from 1993 to 1999. Multiple cross-sectional studies (1992-1996) comprising children under 15 years of age attending the outpatient clinic, Ramathibodi Hospital (n = 511), kindergartens (n = 60), 6 primary school students (n = 564) and secondary school students (n = 377) in Bangkok, were recruited. Blood lead levels were assessed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Questionnaires to identify risk factors were completed by parents of under 2-year-old children and primary school students. IQ was assessed in the longitudinal group at 2 years of age and in primary students. RESULTS: The mean blood lead levels (microg/dl) were 5.57 +/- 2.31 at birth, 5.03 +/- 2.21 at 6 years of age in a cohort study, 6.74 +/- 2.02 in kindergartens, 9.26 +/- 3.68 in primary students and 9.03 +/- 3.65 in secondary school students. The proportion of high blood lead increased with age from 1 per cent at birth to 35 per cent in secondary school students. In the kindergartens and secondary school, males had higher lead levels than females. In the primary school study, the significant risk factors (Odd Ratio-OR) of high lead level were; living in Bangkok (6.18), male (1.67), maternal labour workers (1.79), family income lower than 3,000 baht/month (2.24), a crowded family with more than 9 members (2.22), household members whose present occupation was related to printing (4.55) or lead smelting previously (4.85). Children in the high lead group had lower weight (p = 0.0000) and height (p = 0.0000) and were slow learners determined by their teachers (p = 0.0332). CONCLUSION: The blood lead levels in Bangkok children were not high and have tended to decrease following the reduction of air lead levels because of unleaded gasoline usage. A periodic surveillance survey is still necessary to monitor blood lead level in Bangkok children especially among those with risk factors. SN - 0125-2208 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12549775/Risk_factors_of_high_lead_level_in_Bangkok_children_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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