Inter-population differences in Cd, Cr, Se, and Zn accumulation by the green mussel Perna viridis acclimated at different salinities.Aquat Toxicol. 2003 Feb 12; 62(3):205-18.AT
Trace metal (Cd, Cr, Se, and Zn) uptake from the dissolved phase, assimilation efficiency from the dietary phase, and metal body burden, as well as the clearance rate, apparent water permeability and gill surface area were measured in the green mussel Perna viridis collected from two contrasting salinity sites in Hong Kong coastal waters with following acclimation in the laboratory at different salinities. The concentrations of metals were 1.2-6.4x greater in mussels collected from the low salinity site, i.e. Tai O, as compared with Tap Mun (high salinity) mussels. Influx of Cd and Zn from the dissolved phase increased with decreased salinity. Furthermore, Cr(VI) and Se (selenite) influx were also affected by decreased salinity, in particular below 17 psu, suggesting that speciation was not the only factor to effect metal uptake. Long-term acclimation to different salinity also had an effect on metal uptake. Mussels collected from Tap Mun (high salinity) accumulated metals 1.2-2.2x faster than mussels from Tai O (low salinity) at intermediate and high experimental salinities >17 psu. Metal assimilation efficiencies were unaffected by salinity variation, but gut passage times were significantly longer at low (10 psu) salinities, indicating some effect of lowered salinity on mussels gut physiology. Gill surface area, which was similar in both populations of mussels, and filtration rate, which was generally similar or higher in those groups with low metal uptake, could not explain the inter-population difference in metal accumulation. Although there was no significant difference, due to high inter-individual variability, the apparent water permeability of the Tap Mun population was on average about 1.6x greater compared with Tai O mussels, and may partially account for the difference in metal uptake between these two populations acclimated at salinity >17 psu. Thus, the effect of salinity on metal uptake is dependent on metal biogeochemistry as well as a range of physiological responses. There was a clear effect of acclimation to lowered salinity on metal uptake, which may have important implications for metal accumulation modelling, biomonitoring, and toxicity studies.