Tracheostomy in infants and young children.Laryngoscope. 1976 Mar; 86(3):331-40.L
Seventy-three tracheostomies performed in children three years of age and under in a 52-month period are discussed. Thirty-six were under one year of age. Forty-one were performed for upper airway obstruction, 23 for ventilation or suction, and nine for a combination of upper airway obstruction and lower bronchopulmonary disease. Operative complications developed in 10 patients, and postoperative complications in 16. The most common complication was interstitial air; the most deadly was obstruction of the cannula. There were 20 deaths. Sixteen were due to the patients' diseases; four were due to complications of tracheostomy. If serious operative and postoperative complications are avoided, the important factors determining prognosis are the patient's age and the condition for which the tracheostomy was done. The long term results in these patients show this to be true for both survival and duration of tracheostomy.