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Bioactive compounds in foods: their role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer.

Abstract

"Bioactive compounds" are extranutritional constituents that typically occur in small quantities in foods. They are being intensively studied to evaluate their effects on health. The impetus sparking this scientific inquiry was the result of many epidemiologic studies that have shown protective effects of plant-based diets on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. Many bioactive compounds have been discovered. These compounds vary widely in chemical structure and function and are grouped accordingly. Phenolic compounds, including their subcategory, flavonoids, are present in all plants and have been studied extensively in cereals, legumes, nuts, olive oil, vegetables, fruits, tea, and red wine. Many phenolic compounds have antioxidant properties, and some studies have demonstrated favorable effects on thrombosis and tumorogenesis and promotion. Although some epidemiologic studies have reported protective associations between flavonoids or other phenolics and CVD and cancer, other studies have not found these associations. Various phytoestrogens are present in soy, but also in flaxseed oil, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. They have antioxidant properties, and some studies demonstrated favorable effects on other CVD risk factors, and in animal and cell culture models of cancer. However, because phytoestrogens act both as partial estrogen agonists and antagonists, their effects on cancer are likely complex. Hydroxytyrosol, one of many phenolics in olives and olive oil, is a potent antioxidant. Resveratrol, found in nuts and red wine, has antioxidant, antithrombotic, and anti-inflammatory properties, and inhibits carcinogenesis. Lycopene, a potent antioxidant carotenoid in tomatoes and other fruits, is thought to protect against prostate and other cancers, and inhibits tumor cell growth in animals. Organosulfur compounds in garlic and onions, isothiocyanates in cruciferous vegetables, and monoterpenes in citrus fruits, cherries, and herbs have anticarcinogenic actions in experimental models, as well as cardioprotective effects. In summary, numerous bioactive compounds appear to have beneficial health effects. Much scientific research needs to be conducted before we can begin to make science-based dietary recommendations. Despite this, there is sufficient evidence to recommend consuming food sources rich in bioactive compounds. From a practical perspective, this translates to recommending a diet rich in a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, oils, and nuts.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Graduate Program in Nutrition, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA.

    , , , , , ,

    Source

    The American journal of medicine 113 Suppl 9B: 2002 Dec 30 pg 71S-88S

    MeSH

    Antioxidants
    Cardiovascular Diseases
    Carotenoids
    Chronic Disease
    Dietary Fiber
    Estrogens, Non-Steroidal
    Food
    Humans
    Isoflavones
    Isothiocyanates
    Lycopene
    Monoterpenes
    Neoplasms
    Olive Oil
    Phenols
    Phytoestrogens
    Phytosterols
    Plant Oils
    Plant Preparations
    Resveratrol
    Stilbenes
    Tea

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    12566142

    Citation

    Kris-Etherton, Penny M., et al. "Bioactive Compounds in Foods: Their Role in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer." The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 113 Suppl 9B, 2002, 71S-88S.
    Kris-Etherton PM, Hecker KD, Bonanome A, et al. Bioactive compounds in foods: their role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Am J Med. 2002;113 Suppl 9B:71S-88S.
    Kris-Etherton, P. M., Hecker, K. D., Bonanome, A., Coval, S. M., Binkoski, A. E., Hilpert, K. F., ... Etherton, T. D. (2002). Bioactive compounds in foods: their role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The American Journal of Medicine, 113 Suppl 9B, 71S-88S.
    Kris-Etherton PM, et al. Bioactive Compounds in Foods: Their Role in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer. Am J Med. 2002 Dec 30;113 Suppl 9B:71S-88S. PubMed PMID: 12566142.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Bioactive compounds in foods: their role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. AU - Kris-Etherton,Penny M, AU - Hecker,Kari D, AU - Bonanome,Andrea, AU - Coval,Stacie M, AU - Binkoski,Amy E, AU - Hilpert,Kirsten F, AU - Griel,Amy E, AU - Etherton,Terry D, PY - 2003/2/5/pubmed PY - 2003/2/26/medline PY - 2003/2/5/entrez SP - 71S EP - 88S JF - The American journal of medicine JO - Am. J. Med. VL - 113 Suppl 9B N2 - "Bioactive compounds" are extranutritional constituents that typically occur in small quantities in foods. They are being intensively studied to evaluate their effects on health. The impetus sparking this scientific inquiry was the result of many epidemiologic studies that have shown protective effects of plant-based diets on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. Many bioactive compounds have been discovered. These compounds vary widely in chemical structure and function and are grouped accordingly. Phenolic compounds, including their subcategory, flavonoids, are present in all plants and have been studied extensively in cereals, legumes, nuts, olive oil, vegetables, fruits, tea, and red wine. Many phenolic compounds have antioxidant properties, and some studies have demonstrated favorable effects on thrombosis and tumorogenesis and promotion. Although some epidemiologic studies have reported protective associations between flavonoids or other phenolics and CVD and cancer, other studies have not found these associations. Various phytoestrogens are present in soy, but also in flaxseed oil, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. They have antioxidant properties, and some studies demonstrated favorable effects on other CVD risk factors, and in animal and cell culture models of cancer. However, because phytoestrogens act both as partial estrogen agonists and antagonists, their effects on cancer are likely complex. Hydroxytyrosol, one of many phenolics in olives and olive oil, is a potent antioxidant. Resveratrol, found in nuts and red wine, has antioxidant, antithrombotic, and anti-inflammatory properties, and inhibits carcinogenesis. Lycopene, a potent antioxidant carotenoid in tomatoes and other fruits, is thought to protect against prostate and other cancers, and inhibits tumor cell growth in animals. Organosulfur compounds in garlic and onions, isothiocyanates in cruciferous vegetables, and monoterpenes in citrus fruits, cherries, and herbs have anticarcinogenic actions in experimental models, as well as cardioprotective effects. In summary, numerous bioactive compounds appear to have beneficial health effects. Much scientific research needs to be conducted before we can begin to make science-based dietary recommendations. Despite this, there is sufficient evidence to recommend consuming food sources rich in bioactive compounds. From a practical perspective, this translates to recommending a diet rich in a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, oils, and nuts. SN - 0002-9343 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12566142/Bioactive_compounds_in_foods:_their_role_in_the_prevention_of_cardiovascular_disease_and_cancer_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002934301009950 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -