The effects of fiber enrichment of pasta and fat content on gastric emptying, GLP-1, glucose, and insulin responses to a meal.Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 Feb; 57(2):293-8.EJ
To assess whether the addition of viscous fiber at an amount recommended by the US FDA to allow a 'low saturated fat, cholesterol, soluble fiber and coronary heart disease', health claim label on a food package (1.7 g psyllium) and/or fat (30 g sunflower oil and 3 g sodium propionate) to a pasta meal would affect gastric emptying, postprandial glucose, insulin and GLP-1 concentrations.
Ten subjects participated in a two-by-two single blind randomized crossover study. Four meals containing 50 g of available carbohydrate were consumed: pasta with or without psyllium enrichment served with a tomato sauce with (520 kcal per meal) and without (240 kcal per meal) fat. Blood samples were taken for 240 min following the meal and all subjects consumed a buffet meal at the end of the study. Gastric emptying was measured using the paracetamol absorption test. Blood was analysed for glucose, insulin, GLP-1. Visual analog scales were used to record feelings of hunger, pleasantness and nausea.
The psyllium-enriched pasta had no significant effect on gastric emptying or the incremental area under the curve (IAUC) for GLP-1, insulin or glucose compared with the control pasta. The addition of polyunsaturated fat and sodium propionate significantly increased the IAUC for GLP-1 (P<0.001), delaying gastric emptying (P<0.002), and decreasing glucose (P<0.002).
A dose of 1.7 g psyllium did not evoke measurable effects on gastric emptying, postprandial GLP-1, insulin or glucose metabolism. However the addition of 30 g of oil and 3 g of sodium propionate to the pasta did reduce gastric emptying, increase GLP-1 and reduce glucose and insulin concentrations. While this short-term study may have implications in terms of reducing the risk of diabetes and improving coronary risk factor profiles the long term effects of these nutrients need to be studied.