Estimated energy intake, macronutrient intake and meal pattern of Flemish adolescents.Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 Feb; 57(2):366-75.EJ
To describe the energy and macronutrient intake and the meal patterns of Flemish adolescents, aged 13-18 y.
A 7 day estimated food record was administered to the whole sample.
Secondary schools in the city of Ghent, Belgium.
A total of 341 adolescents (13-18 y) selected by a multistage clustered sampling (participation: 72.7%).
A significant increase with age was observed in total energy intake in adolescent boys (P<0.01), but not in girls. The energy distribution over the macronutrients showed no significant difference between boys and girls. On average, 35.7% (s.d. 4.81%) of energy came from total fat and 15.4% (s.d. 2.46%) from saturated fatty acids; 49.0% (s.d. 5.28%) from total carbohydrates with 25.1% (s.d. 4.49%) from complex carbohydrates and 23.9% (s.d. 5.86%) from free sugars. The energy contribution of alcohol in the 16-18 y-old-group was significantly higher as compared with the 13-15 y-old-group, for both boys and girls. Snacks between meals accounted for almost 20% of the total energy intake. Lunch and dinner were characterized by high total fat content.
These students consumed a diet high in total fat and in saturated fatty acids and also high in mono- and disaccharides. Observed mean intakes deviate considerably from the Belgian dietary guidelines. A low energy intake at breakfast was observed, while a higher proportion of energy was derived from snacks.