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A randomised four-intervention crossover study investigating the effect of carbohydrates on daytime profiles of insulin, glucose, non-esterified fatty acids and triacylglycerols in middle-aged men.

Abstract

Postprandial concentrations of glucose, insulin and triacylglycerols (TG) correlate to risk for CHD. Carbohydrates affect many metabolites that could have a potential effect on cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of the present study was to examine, using a randomised prospective study, the acute (day 1) and ad libitum medium-term (day 24) effects of four diets: a high-fat diet (HIGH-FAT; 50 % fat, >34 % monounsaturated fatty acids); a low-glycaemic index (GI) diet (LOW-GI; high-carbohydrate, low-GI); a high-sucrose diet (SUCROSE; high carbohydrate increase of 90 g sucrose/d); a high-GI diet (HIGH-GI; high-carbohydrate, high-GI). Daytime profiles (8 h) (breakfast, lunch and tea) of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism were completed during day 1 and day 24. Seventeen middle-aged men with one or more cardiac risk factors completed the study. There was no change from day 1 or between diets in fasting glucose, lipids or homeostatic assessment model (HOMA) on day 24. The HIGH-FAT compared with the three high-carbohydrate diets was associated with lower postprandial insulin and glucose but higher postprandial TG and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). There was a significant increase in the 6 h (15.00 hours) TG concentration (day 1, 2.6 (sem 0.3) mmol/l v. day 24, 3.3 (sem 0.3) mmol/l; P<0.01) on the SUCROSE diet. Postprandial HOMA (i.e. incremental area under the curve (IAUC) glucose (mmol/l per min)xIAUC insulin/22.5 (mU/l per min)) median changes from day 1 to day 24 were -61, -43, -20 and +31 % for the HIGH-FAT, LOW-GI, SUCROSE and HIGH-GI diets respectively. The HIGH-GI percentage change was significantly different from the other three diets (P<0.001). Despite being advised to maintain an identical energy intake there was a significant weight change (-0.27 (sem 0.3) kg; P<0.02) on the LOW-GI diet compared with the SUCROSE diet (+0.84 (sem 0.3) kg). In conclusion the HIGH-FAT diet had a beneficial effect on postprandial glucose and insulin over time but it was associated with higher postprandial concentrations of TG and NEFA. Conversely the HIGH-GI diet appeared to increase postprandial insulin resistance over the study period.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Nutrition and Dietetic Research Group, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0HS, UK.

    , , , , ,

    Source

    The British journal of nutrition 89:2 2003 Feb pg 207-18

    MeSH

    Area Under Curve
    Blood Glucose
    Cross-Over Studies
    Dietary Carbohydrates
    Dietary Fats
    Fatty Acids, Nonesterified
    Glycemic Index
    Humans
    Insulin
    Insulin Resistance
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Postprandial Period
    Prospective Studies
    Risk Factors
    Time Factors
    Triglycerides

    Pub Type(s)

    Clinical Trial
    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    12575905

    Citation

    Brynes, Audrey E., et al. "A Randomised Four-intervention Crossover Study Investigating the Effect of Carbohydrates On Daytime Profiles of Insulin, Glucose, Non-esterified Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols in Middle-aged Men." The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 89, no. 2, 2003, pp. 207-18.
    Brynes AE, Mark Edwards C, Ghatei MA, et al. A randomised four-intervention crossover study investigating the effect of carbohydrates on daytime profiles of insulin, glucose, non-esterified fatty acids and triacylglycerols in middle-aged men. Br J Nutr. 2003;89(2):207-18.
    Brynes, A. E., Mark Edwards, C., Ghatei, M. A., Dornhorst, A., Morgan, L. M., Bloom, S. R., & Frost, G. S. (2003). A randomised four-intervention crossover study investigating the effect of carbohydrates on daytime profiles of insulin, glucose, non-esterified fatty acids and triacylglycerols in middle-aged men. The British Journal of Nutrition, 89(2), pp. 207-18.
    Brynes AE, et al. A Randomised Four-intervention Crossover Study Investigating the Effect of Carbohydrates On Daytime Profiles of Insulin, Glucose, Non-esterified Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols in Middle-aged Men. Br J Nutr. 2003;89(2):207-18. PubMed PMID: 12575905.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - A randomised four-intervention crossover study investigating the effect of carbohydrates on daytime profiles of insulin, glucose, non-esterified fatty acids and triacylglycerols in middle-aged men. AU - Brynes,Audrey E, AU - Mark Edwards,C, AU - Ghatei,Mohammed A, AU - Dornhorst,Anne, AU - Morgan,Linda M, AU - Bloom,Stephen R, AU - Frost,Gary S, PY - 2003/2/11/pubmed PY - 2003/2/28/medline PY - 2003/2/11/entrez SP - 207 EP - 18 JF - The British journal of nutrition JO - Br. J. Nutr. VL - 89 IS - 2 N2 - Postprandial concentrations of glucose, insulin and triacylglycerols (TG) correlate to risk for CHD. Carbohydrates affect many metabolites that could have a potential effect on cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of the present study was to examine, using a randomised prospective study, the acute (day 1) and ad libitum medium-term (day 24) effects of four diets: a high-fat diet (HIGH-FAT; 50 % fat, >34 % monounsaturated fatty acids); a low-glycaemic index (GI) diet (LOW-GI; high-carbohydrate, low-GI); a high-sucrose diet (SUCROSE; high carbohydrate increase of 90 g sucrose/d); a high-GI diet (HIGH-GI; high-carbohydrate, high-GI). Daytime profiles (8 h) (breakfast, lunch and tea) of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism were completed during day 1 and day 24. Seventeen middle-aged men with one or more cardiac risk factors completed the study. There was no change from day 1 or between diets in fasting glucose, lipids or homeostatic assessment model (HOMA) on day 24. The HIGH-FAT compared with the three high-carbohydrate diets was associated with lower postprandial insulin and glucose but higher postprandial TG and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). There was a significant increase in the 6 h (15.00 hours) TG concentration (day 1, 2.6 (sem 0.3) mmol/l v. day 24, 3.3 (sem 0.3) mmol/l; P<0.01) on the SUCROSE diet. Postprandial HOMA (i.e. incremental area under the curve (IAUC) glucose (mmol/l per min)xIAUC insulin/22.5 (mU/l per min)) median changes from day 1 to day 24 were -61, -43, -20 and +31 % for the HIGH-FAT, LOW-GI, SUCROSE and HIGH-GI diets respectively. The HIGH-GI percentage change was significantly different from the other three diets (P<0.001). Despite being advised to maintain an identical energy intake there was a significant weight change (-0.27 (sem 0.3) kg; P<0.02) on the LOW-GI diet compared with the SUCROSE diet (+0.84 (sem 0.3) kg). In conclusion the HIGH-FAT diet had a beneficial effect on postprandial glucose and insulin over time but it was associated with higher postprandial concentrations of TG and NEFA. Conversely the HIGH-GI diet appeared to increase postprandial insulin resistance over the study period. SN - 0007-1145 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12575905/A_randomised_four_intervention_crossover_study_investigating_the_effect_of_carbohydrates_on_daytime_profiles_of_insulin_glucose_non_esterified_fatty_acids_and_triacylglycerols_in_middle_aged_men_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0007114503000254/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -