Clinical presentations in combat veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder.J Clin Psychol. 2003 Mar; 59(3):385-97.JC
This article investigated subtypes of symptom patterns among male combat veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through a cluster analysis of their Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher, Graham, Ben-Porath, Tellegen, Dahlstrom, & Kaemmer, 2001) clinical and validity scales. Participants were 126 veterans seeking outpatient treatment for combat-related PTSD at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Two well-fitting MMPI-2 cluster solutions (a four-cluster solution and a three-cluster solution) were evaluated with several statistical methods. A four-cluster solution was determined to best fit the data. Follow-up analyses demonstrated between-cluster differences on MMPI-2 "fake bad" scales and content scales, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; Beck, Ward, Mendelson, Mock, & Erbaugh, 1961), Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES; Bernstein & Putnam, 1986), Mississippi Combat PTSD scale (M-PTSD; Keane, Caddall, & Taylor, 1988), and Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS-1; Blake et al., 1990). Clusters also were different in disability-seeking status, employment status, and income. Implications for research and clinical practice using the MMPI-2 with combat veterans presenting with PTSD are briefly addressed.