[Effect of a modified low protein and low fat diet on histologic changes and metabolism in kidneys in an experimental model of polycystic kidney disease].Srp Arh Celok Lek. 2002 Jul-Aug; 130(7-8):251-7.SA
Dietary protein restriction slows progression in numerous animal models of renal diseases. Flax seed has also demonstrated useful anti-inflammatory properties in a number of animal models and human diseases. We undertook several studies to determine if feeding with low protein casein, soy diet and flax seed diet would ameliorate renal injury in Han:SPRD-cy rat model of polycystic kidney disease.
Male offspring of Han:SPRD-cy heterozygotes received protein modified diet: ad libidum LP 8% casein in test or 20% casein in control group for 8 weeks; 20% heat treated soy protein or 20% casein in control group two separate studies for 8 weeks ad libidum and pair feeding in 6 weeks; and 10% flax seed diet or control rat chow for 8 weeks from weaning. Tissue was harvested for histological assessment and metabolic changes in lipids, citric acid metabolites and osmolytes. Morphometrically after histochemical and immunohistochemical staining cystic changes, renal tubular proliferation and apoptosis, number of interstitial cells/macrophages infiltration and interstitial fibrosis were measured. Gas chromatography was used for lipid analysis in renal and liver tissue. 1-HNMR spectroscopy was used for urine and tissue organic anion and osmolytes content analysis. RESULTS IN PROTEIN MODIFIED DIET: Casein low protein as well as soy protein fed animals demonstrated reduced PKD pathology: significant reduction in cystic changes, interstitial inflammation and fibrosis and also reduction in tubular cells proliferation and apoptosis. Pair feeding protocol in second soy diet study confirmed that significant effect on renal histology was not because of protein deprivation and growth retardation. 1-H NMR spectroscopy revealed that progression of chronic renal failure in Han:SPRD-cy rat PKD is associated with renal depletion of citric acid cycle metabolite and betaine. Amelioration of PKD by soy protein diet is associated with renal retention of citric acid cycle anions, despite increased excretion and preservation of betaine in renal tissue. Soy feeding increased both hepatic and renal content of linoleic acid and increased renal alpha linolenic acid content, while decreased arachidonic hepatic content. RESULTS IN FLAX SEED SUPPLEMENTATION IN DIET: Flax seed fed animals had moderate decrease in cystic size and less interstitial inflammation and fibrosis while there were no differences in epithelial cell apoptosis and proliferation. Lipid analysis revealed significant renal enrichment of 18 and 20 carbon omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In flax fed animals there was an increased urinary citrate excretion without significant changes in urinary ammonia excretion, so increased citrate excretion was not due to alkaline effect of the diet. Kidney tissue 1H NMR spectroscopy revealed that disease amelioration was associated with tissue retention of succinate and betaine.
Effect on histology: Low casein and soy feeding ameliorates Han: SPRD-cy rat polycystic kidney disease reducing both tubular remodeling and interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, while flax seed diet effect appears to be through moderation of associated interstitial nephritis. Metabolic effect: Soy diet alters the renal content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and enriched renal betaine content with retention of citric acid cycle metabolites despite increased excretion. Flax seed diet alters renal content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and promotes the formation of less inflammatory classes of renal prostanoides. Flax seed diet also enriched renal content of betaine and succinate. Amelioration of Hans:SPRD-cy rat polycystic kidney disease by diet is associated with alteration in the handling of citric acid cycle metabolites and betaine, and also in content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in kidneys and liver. Metabolic pathways in dietary modified renal pathology have to be established.