Sugar as a vehicle for iron fortification: further studies.Am J Clin Nutr. 1976 Mar; 29(3):274-9.AJ
The data presented confirm the advantages of sugar as a vehicle for iron fortification over other vehicles used in the past. The absorption comparison between ferric and ferrous salts added to sugar demonstrated that Fe(III)-EDTA Complex and ferrous sulfate exhibited the highest absorption, while ferric ammonium citrate was poorly absorbed. It was also found that Fe(III)-EDTA reacts slowly with the tannin contained in tea; the color of the tea changes slightly in the first 2 hr after the addition of the fortified sugar. Iron absorption of sugar fortified with ferrous sulfate was tested in seven beverages. The mean absorption ratio from fortified sugar given with beverages to reference dose of iron ascorbate ranged between 0.42 and 0.70, that is, more than 4 times the absorption from fortified sugar when it is administered with a meal containing one or more vegetals. An absorption of between 0.25 and 0.80 mg of iron/soft drink sugar fortified with 3 mg of iron as ferrous sulfate can be expected in subjects with various degrees of iron deficiency. Thus, two soft drinks per day between meals would be enough to meet the iron requirement in more than 95% of menstruating women, even though the daily iron absorption from the diet is about 0.8 to 1.0 mg.