Clinical, clinicopathologic, and radiographic findings in dogs with coccidioidomycosis: 24 cases (1995-2000).J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003 Feb 15; 222(4):461-6.JA
To determine clinical, clinicopathologic, and radiographic abnormalities in dogs with coccidioidomycosis.
Retrospective case series.
Clinical information and results of clinicopathologic testing were obtained from medical records. Thoracic radiographs were reviewed to characterize abnormalities.
Dogs ranged from 1 to 10 years old at the time of diagnosis, with 12 dogs being between 1 and 3 years old. Historical complaints included cough, lameness, signs of head or neck pain, and difficulty breathing. Mild anemia, neutrophilia, and monocytosis were common. All dogs had hypoalbuminemia, and 8 of 15 had hyperglobulinemia. Thoracic radiographs of 19 dogs were reviewed. Pulmonary infiltrates were seen in 13 dogs, with an interstitial pattern of infiltration being most common. Hilar lymphadenopathy was seen radiographically in 10 dogs. Serum from 20 dogs was tested for antibodies against Coccidioides immitis. One dog was positive for IgM antibodies, 5 were positive for IgM and IgG antibodies, and 14 were positive for IgG antibodies. Quantitative IgG titers measured in 14 dogs ranged from 1:2 to 1:128 (median and mode, 1:32). In 6 dogs, histologic examination of biopsy samples revealed fungal spherules ranging from 8 to 70 microm in diameter.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggest that in dogs, coccidioidomycosis may be associated with a wide spectrum of nonspecific respiratory and musculoskeletal abnormalities. The chronic nature of the disease makes diagnosis difficult, even in regions in which the organism is endemic.