Association of energy intake with prostate cancer in a long-term aging study: Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (United States).Urology 2003; 61(2):297-301U
To examine the association of total energy intake and macronutrient contributors to energy with prostate cancer risk among men in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.
In the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging cohort, 444 men completed at least one food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). At their earliest FFQ completion, men were 45 to 92 years old. The total number of prostate cancer cases (n = 68) consisted of men who were diagnosed with cancer before their FFQ completion (n = 46) and those who were diagnosed after their FFQ completion (n = 22). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratio of prostate cancer and its 95% confidence interval.
Total energy intake was positively associated with prostate cancer. Compared with the lowest quintile of energy intake, the odds ratio for the highest quintile was 3.79 (95% confidence interval 1.52 to 9.48, P TREND = 0.002). Energy-adjusted intakes of protein, fat, and carbohydrates were not statistically significantly associated with prostate cancer risk.
This analysis, in which we used current energy intake as a surrogate for past prediagnostic intake, suggests a higher risk of prostate cancer with increased energy intake.