Differential effects of saturated and monounsaturated fats on postprandial lipemia and glucagon-like peptide 1 responses in patients with type 2 diabetes.Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Mar; 77(3):605-11.AJ
Postprandial lipemia is important in the development of coronary artery disease because of elevated postprandial triacylglycerol-rich plasma lipoproteins and suppressed HDL-cholesterol concentrations. We showed in healthy subjects a possible association between postprandial lipid metabolism and the responses of the duodenal incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide after meals rich in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid), respectively.
The objective was to compare the postprandial responses (8 h) of glucose, insulin, fatty acids, triacylglycerol, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, and GLP-1 to saturated- and monounsaturated-rich test meals.
Twelve overweight patients with type 2 diabetes ingested 3 meals randomly: an energy-free soup with 50 g carbohydrate (control meal), the control meal plus 100 g butter, and the control meal plus 80 g olive oil. Triacylglycerol responses were measured in total plasma and in a chylomicron-rich and a chylomicron-poor fraction.
No significant differences in the glucose, insulin, or fatty acid responses to the 2 fat-rich meals were seen. The plasma triacylglycerol and chylomicron triacylglycerol responses were highest after the butter meal. HDL-cholesterol concentrations decreased significantly after the butter meal but did not change significantly after the olive oil meal. GLP-1 responses were highest after the olive oil meal.
Olive oil induced lower triacylglycerol concentrations and higher HDL-cholesterol concentrations than did butter, without eliciting significant changes in glucose, insulin, or fatty acids. Furthermore, olive oil induced higher concentrations of GLP-1, which may indicate a relation between fatty acid composition, incretin responses, and triacylglycerol metabolism postprandially in patients with type 2 diabetes.