Risk factors for iron deficiency in a hospitalized urban New Zealand population.J Paediatr Child Health. 2003 Mar; 39(2):100-6.JP
To determine which dietary practices and sociodemographic factors are associated with iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) and iron deficiency (ID) in hospitalized New Zealand children.
A prospective study of children 8-23 months of age hospitalized with an acute illness from 1997 to 1999. Iron deficiency was defined as abnormal values for two out of three of serum ferritin (< 10 micro g/L), serum iron saturation (< 10%) and red cell distribution width (> 14.5%). Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) was defined as ID + serum haemoglobin concentration <110 g/L. Those with IDA or ID were compared separately with those who were not iron deficient.
Three hundred and ninety-one children were enrolled. Two hundred and twenty had IDA, 73 had ID and 98 were not iron deficient. In a multivariate analysis, those children who had a diagnosis of pneumonia (odds ratio 4.43, 95% CI 1.49, 13.13) were Pacific (odds ratio 6.31, 95% CI 2.14, 18.63), were currently drinking breast milk (odds ratio 10.22, 95% CI 2.95, 35.42), had a mother who restricted her meat intake during pregnancy (odds ratio 4.40, 95% CI 1.53, 12.64) or lived in a household with more than three children (odds ratio 7.42, 95% CI 1.88, 29.34) were at increased risk of IDA. Those children who were Pacific (odds ratio 5.44, 95% CI 1.37, 21.65) or who drank tea (odds ratio 7.88, 95% CI 1.10, 56.33) were at increased risk of ID. Those with a diagnosis of gastroenteritis (odds ratio 0.16, 95% CI 0.03, 0.75) were at decreased risk of ID.
Both dietary and non-dietary factors are associated with an increased risk of IDA and ID in New Zealand children. In this hospitalized sample, more non-dietary than dietary factors were associated with poor iron status.