Prevalence and characteristics of foveal retinal detachment without macular hole in high myopia.Am J Ophthalmol 2003; 135(3):338-42AJ
To report the prevalence of foveal retinal detachment without macular hole in a large number of highly myopic eyes using optical coherence tomography (OCT), and to clarify the demographic characteristics associated with foveal retinal detachment in these eyes.
A consecutive, prospective, observational case series.
In 134 eyes of 78 consecutive patients with high myopia (refractive error of -8 diopters or more), we performed complete ophthalmic examinations and studied cross-sectional images of the macula with OCT. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence (group 1, n = 78 eyes of 45 patients) or absence (group 2, n = 56 eyes of 33 patients) of posterior staphyloma. Slit-lamp examination with a Goldmann three-mirror lens indicated that none of the eyes had a macular hole.
In seven of 78 eyes (9.0%) with posterior staphyloma (group 1), OCT revealed foveal retinal detachment. Two of the seven eyes had foveal retinoschisis. Optical coherence tomography revealed no retinal detachment or retinoschisis in any eye without posterior staphyloma (group 2). Visual acuity of the seven eyes with foveal retinal detachment ranged from 20/40 to 20/200. Two of the seven eyes had visual acuity 20/50 or better. No patients complained of recent, progressive visual impairment. All seven eyes with foveal retinal detachment had severe myopic fundus changes (focal chorioretinal atrophy or bare sclera).
In highly myopic eyes with posterior staphyloma, the prevalence of foveal retinal detachment without macular hole was 9.0%. In eyes with this type of retinal detachment, visual acuity varies and foveal retinal detachment tends to be missed on routine examination. Periodic examination using OCT is recommended for highly myopic eyes with severe myopic degenerative changes and posterior staphyloma.