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Season modifies the relationship between bone and blood lead levels: the Normative Aging Study.

Abstract

Bone serves as a repository for 75% and 90-95% of lead in children and adults, respectively. Bone lead mobilization heightens during times of increased bone turnover, such as pregnancy, lactation, hyperthyroidism, and the rapid growth of childhood. Blood lead levels show seasonal periodicity. Children demonstrate peak blood lead levels in mid-summer and a secondary peak in late winter. Pregnant women demonstrate the highest mean blood lead levels in winter (January-March) and the lowest in summer (July-September). This fluctuation in blood lead levels may be related to seasonal patterns of environmental exposures, but it may also be partially related to the increased mobilization of bone lead stores during the winter months. We performed bone lead measurements using a K-x-ray fluorescent instrument to determine micrograms of lead per gram of bone mineral (parts per million) in middle-aged and elderly men who participated in the Normative Aging Study. We obtained measurements of blood and bone lead during the high sun exposure months of May-August (summer; n = 290); the intermediate sun exposure months of March, April, September, and October (spring/fall; n = 283); and the low sun exposure months of November-February (winter; n = 191). Mean blood lead concentrations were 5.8 microg/dl, 6.1 microg/dl, and 6.6 microg/dl for the summer, spring/fall, and winter, respectively. Mean patella (trabecular bone) lead concentrations were 34.3 microg/gm, 29.7 microg/gm, and 29.0 microg/gm for the summer, spring/fall, and winter time periods, respectively. In multivariate regression models, adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol ingestion, and dietary intake of iron and vitamin C, the authors found a strong interaction between season and bone lead level--with bone lead levels exerting an almost 2-fold greater influence on blood levels during the winter months than the summer months. The authors concluded that elevated blood lead levels in winter may be related to increased mobilization of endogenous bone lead stores, potentially from decreased exposure to sunlight, lower levels of activated vitamin D, and enhanced bone resorption.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Age Distribution
    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Biomarkers
    Body Burden
    Bone Remodeling
    Bone and Bones
    Boston
    Environmental Exposure
    Environmental Monitoring
    Epidemiological Monitoring
    Female
    Humans
    Lead
    Lead Poisoning
    Linear Models
    Longitudinal Studies
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Multivariate Analysis
    Regression Analysis
    Seasons
    Sex Distribution

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    12641191

    Citation

    Oliveira, Steve, et al. "Season Modifies the Relationship Between Bone and Blood Lead Levels: the Normative Aging Study." Archives of Environmental Health, vol. 57, no. 5, 2002, pp. 466-72.
    Oliveira S, Aro A, Sparrow D, et al. Season modifies the relationship between bone and blood lead levels: the Normative Aging Study. Arch Environ Health. 2002;57(5):466-72.
    Oliveira, S., Aro, A., Sparrow, D., & Hu, H. (2002). Season modifies the relationship between bone and blood lead levels: the Normative Aging Study. Archives of Environmental Health, 57(5), pp. 466-72.
    Oliveira S, et al. Season Modifies the Relationship Between Bone and Blood Lead Levels: the Normative Aging Study. Arch Environ Health. 2002;57(5):466-72. PubMed PMID: 12641191.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Season modifies the relationship between bone and blood lead levels: the Normative Aging Study. AU - Oliveira,Steve, AU - Aro,Antonio, AU - Sparrow,David, AU - Hu,Howard, PY - 2003/3/19/pubmed PY - 2003/3/29/medline PY - 2003/3/19/entrez SP - 466 EP - 72 JF - Archives of environmental health JO - Arch. Environ. Health VL - 57 IS - 5 N2 - Bone serves as a repository for 75% and 90-95% of lead in children and adults, respectively. Bone lead mobilization heightens during times of increased bone turnover, such as pregnancy, lactation, hyperthyroidism, and the rapid growth of childhood. Blood lead levels show seasonal periodicity. Children demonstrate peak blood lead levels in mid-summer and a secondary peak in late winter. Pregnant women demonstrate the highest mean blood lead levels in winter (January-March) and the lowest in summer (July-September). This fluctuation in blood lead levels may be related to seasonal patterns of environmental exposures, but it may also be partially related to the increased mobilization of bone lead stores during the winter months. We performed bone lead measurements using a K-x-ray fluorescent instrument to determine micrograms of lead per gram of bone mineral (parts per million) in middle-aged and elderly men who participated in the Normative Aging Study. We obtained measurements of blood and bone lead during the high sun exposure months of May-August (summer; n = 290); the intermediate sun exposure months of March, April, September, and October (spring/fall; n = 283); and the low sun exposure months of November-February (winter; n = 191). Mean blood lead concentrations were 5.8 microg/dl, 6.1 microg/dl, and 6.6 microg/dl for the summer, spring/fall, and winter, respectively. Mean patella (trabecular bone) lead concentrations were 34.3 microg/gm, 29.7 microg/gm, and 29.0 microg/gm for the summer, spring/fall, and winter time periods, respectively. In multivariate regression models, adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol ingestion, and dietary intake of iron and vitamin C, the authors found a strong interaction between season and bone lead level--with bone lead levels exerting an almost 2-fold greater influence on blood levels during the winter months than the summer months. The authors concluded that elevated blood lead levels in winter may be related to increased mobilization of endogenous bone lead stores, potentially from decreased exposure to sunlight, lower levels of activated vitamin D, and enhanced bone resorption. SN - 0003-9896 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12641191/Season_modifies_the_relationship_between_bone_and_blood_lead_levels:_the_Normative_Aging_Study_ L2 - http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=linkout&SEARCH=12641191.ui DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -