Dietary fat has minimal effects on fatty acid metabolism transcript concentrations in pigs.J Anim Sci. 2003 Feb; 81(2):423-31.JA
Young, crossbred pigs were fed either a low-fat, corn-based diet; a high-fat, tallow-based diet with a considerable saturated fatty acid (FA) content; or a high-fat, fish oil-based diet with a considerable polyunsaturated FA content, for 14 d. There were six pigs per dietary group (approximately 4-wk-old with a body weight of 6.16 kg). The plasma and adipose tissue FA composition reflected the composition of the diet to a large extent, but also reflected de novo FA synthesis coupled with chain elongation and desaturation. The liver and skeletal muscle FA composition reflected the diet and endogenous synthesis, but the indications for preferential incorporation or exclusion of specific FA were greater in these tissues than in plasma or adipose tissue. An important transcription factor for adipocyte differentiation and other aspects of lipid metabolism is adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1 (ADD1). Liver ADD1 messenger RNA (mRNA) tended to be decreased (P = 0.06) in the fish oil-fed group, as well as in the combined high-fat-fed groups (tallow + fish oil) compared to the low-fat-fed group (P = 0.06). The muscle acyl-CoA oxidase mRNA tended to be increased in the tallow-fed group and decreased in fish oil-fed groups (P = 0.06). The muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase mRNA tended to be elevated in both fat-fed groups (P = 0.07). None of the adipose tissue mRNA were changed by the diet (P > 0.20). The observations suggest there are major differences between rodents and pigs in modulation of transcripts associated with lipid metabolism by the dietary FA composition or concentration. Also, in porcine adipose tissue, as well as in liver and skeletal muscle, these transcripts are rather refractory to modification by dietary FA.