Campylobacter spp in human, chickens, pigs and their antimicrobial resistance.J Vet Med Sci. 2003 Feb; 65(2):161-70.JV
Campylobacter spp. have been identified as etiologic agents in outbreaks and sporadic cases of gastroenteritis in developed countries. In developing countries, most reported Campylobacter infections are in children. Previously reported prevalences of Campylobacter spp. in children in Southeast Asia range from 2.9% to 15%. The frequency and pattern of occurrence of Campylobacter spp. differ between developed and developing countries, especially in the number of cases reported in adults and the presence of any seasonal patterns in occurrence. Although the severity of Campylobacter infection in adults was different between developed and developing countries, the clinical symptoms of infection in adults resulting from infection in developing countries was similar to those in developed countries. Many different animal species maintain Campylobacter spp. with no clinical signs. There do not appear to be significantly different colonization rates of Campylobacter in food animals between developed and developing countries. The role of C. jejuni as a primary pathogen in farm animals is uncertain. C. jejuni can be found in feces of diarrheic and healthy calves and piglets. Campylobacter with resistance to antimicrobial agents have been reported in both developed and developing countries, and the situation seems to deteriorate more rapidly in developing countries, where there is widespread and uncontrolled use of antibiotics resistance was observed at high levels in food animals in both developed and developing countries. Studies suggested an association between antimicrobial use in food animals and the development of resistance in human isolates in developed countries.