Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Comparing nutrient intake from food to the estimated average requirements shows middle- to upper-income pregnant women lack iron and possibly magnesium.
J Am Diet Assoc 2003; 103(4):461-6JA

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether nutrient intake from food alone was adequate across trimesters for middle- to upper-income pregnant women when compared with estimated average requirements (EAR), and to determine whether food intake exceeded the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for any nutrient.

DESIGN

Observational study in which pregnant women completed 3-day diet records each month during their pregnancy. Records were analyzed for nutrient content, and usual intake distributions were determined.

SUBJECTS/SETTING

Subjects were low-risk women in their first trimester of pregnancy (living in middle- to upper-income households). Ninety-four women were recruited, and sixty-three participated.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS PERFORMED

Nutrient intake data were adjusted to achieve normality by using a power transformation. A mixed model method was used to assess trends in intake over time, and to estimate mean intake and within-subjects and between-subjects variance. The usual intake distribution for each nutrient was determined and compared with the EAR and UL.

RESULTS

The probabilities of usual nutrient intake from food being less than the EAR were highest for iron (.91), magnesium (.53), zinc (.31), vitamin B6 (.21), selenium (.20), and vitamin C (.12). Women were not at risk of exceeding the UL from food intake for any nutrient studied.

APPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS

Study participants did not consume adequate amounts of iron from food to meet the needs of pregnancy, and therefore iron supplementation is warranted in this population. Intake of magnesium was suboptimal using the EAR as a cut-point for adequacy.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0370, USA. returner@mail.ifas.ufl.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

12669009

Citation

Turner, R Elaine, et al. "Comparing Nutrient Intake From Food to the Estimated Average Requirements Shows Middle- to Upper-income Pregnant Women Lack Iron and Possibly Magnesium." Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 103, no. 4, 2003, pp. 461-6.
Turner RE, Langkamp-Henken B, Littell RC, et al. Comparing nutrient intake from food to the estimated average requirements shows middle- to upper-income pregnant women lack iron and possibly magnesium. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003;103(4):461-6.
Turner, R. E., Langkamp-Henken, B., Littell, R. C., Lukowski, M. J., & Suarez, M. F. (2003). Comparing nutrient intake from food to the estimated average requirements shows middle- to upper-income pregnant women lack iron and possibly magnesium. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 103(4), pp. 461-6.
Turner RE, et al. Comparing Nutrient Intake From Food to the Estimated Average Requirements Shows Middle- to Upper-income Pregnant Women Lack Iron and Possibly Magnesium. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003;103(4):461-6. PubMed PMID: 12669009.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Comparing nutrient intake from food to the estimated average requirements shows middle- to upper-income pregnant women lack iron and possibly magnesium. AU - Turner,R Elaine, AU - Langkamp-Henken,Bobbi, AU - Littell,Ramon C, AU - Lukowski,Michael J, AU - Suarez,Maria F, PY - 2003/4/2/pubmed PY - 2003/5/8/medline PY - 2003/4/2/entrez SP - 461 EP - 6 JF - Journal of the American Dietetic Association JO - J Am Diet Assoc VL - 103 IS - 4 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To determine whether nutrient intake from food alone was adequate across trimesters for middle- to upper-income pregnant women when compared with estimated average requirements (EAR), and to determine whether food intake exceeded the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for any nutrient. DESIGN: Observational study in which pregnant women completed 3-day diet records each month during their pregnancy. Records were analyzed for nutrient content, and usual intake distributions were determined. SUBJECTS/SETTING: Subjects were low-risk women in their first trimester of pregnancy (living in middle- to upper-income households). Ninety-four women were recruited, and sixty-three participated. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS PERFORMED: Nutrient intake data were adjusted to achieve normality by using a power transformation. A mixed model method was used to assess trends in intake over time, and to estimate mean intake and within-subjects and between-subjects variance. The usual intake distribution for each nutrient was determined and compared with the EAR and UL. RESULTS: The probabilities of usual nutrient intake from food being less than the EAR were highest for iron (.91), magnesium (.53), zinc (.31), vitamin B6 (.21), selenium (.20), and vitamin C (.12). Women were not at risk of exceeding the UL from food intake for any nutrient studied. APPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS: Study participants did not consume adequate amounts of iron from food to meet the needs of pregnancy, and therefore iron supplementation is warranted in this population. Intake of magnesium was suboptimal using the EAR as a cut-point for adequacy. SN - 0002-8223 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12669009/Comparing_nutrient_intake_from_food_to_the_estimated_average_requirements_shows_middle__to_upper_income_pregnant_women_lack_iron_and_possibly_magnesium_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002822303000166 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -