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Food group sources of nutrients in the dietary patterns of the DASH-Sodium trial.

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to identify major food group sources of several essential nutrients in the two dietary patterns used in the DASH-Sodium trial: a control diet and the DASH dietary pattern. The DASH-Sodium trial was a multicenter, randomized, controlled-feeding trial comparing the effects of three levels of sodium and two dietary patterns on blood pressure. Nutrient contents of all the menus for both the control and the DASH diets were analyzed and examined for their dietary sources from 13 food groups. Contributions of all foods within each food group to each nutrient were averaged then weighted to reflect the actual distribution of energy levels in the study. Nutrient contents across the three sodium levels are very similar within each diet. Refined grains and whole grains are the major energy sources for the control and the DASH diet, providing 35% and 23% to the total intake, respectively. Nutrient-dense whole grains contributed greatly, ranging from 11% to 46%, to the higher intakes of protein, fiber, calcium, magnesium, potassium, zinc, and folate in the DASH diet. Vegetables, in addition to being a good source for fiber, vitamins A, C, E, and folate, also contributed an average of 15% to the intakes of magnesium, potassium, and calcium in the DASH diet. Differences in nutrient contents between the control and the DASH diets were accomplished by varying the selection of food items (eg, refined grains vs whole grains) and quantities of certain food groups (eg, less red meats and higher amounts of fruits and vegetables). The DASH dietary pattern recommends four to five servings of fruits; four to five servings of vegetables; two to three servings of low-fat dairy products; seven to eight servings of grain products (preferably whole grains); two or less servings of meats, poultry, and fish per day; and four to five servings of nuts, seeds, and legumes per week for a 2,000 kcal diet. Each of these food groups contributes critical nutrients across various sodium levels. It is important to emphasize all food groups when trying to follow this proven dietary pattern.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA. Lin00004@mc.duke.edu

    , , , , , , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Blood Pressure
    Diet
    Diet, Sodium-Restricted
    Dietary Carbohydrates
    Dietary Fats
    Dietary Fiber
    Energy Intake
    Female
    Food Analysis
    Fruit
    Humans
    Hypertension
    Male
    Minerals
    Nutrition Policy
    Nutritive Value
    Potassium, Dietary
    Sodium Chloride, Dietary
    Vegetables
    Vitamins

    Pub Type(s)

    Clinical Trial
    Journal Article
    Multicenter Study
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    12669013

    Citation

    Lin, Pao-Hwa, et al. "Food Group Sources of Nutrients in the Dietary Patterns of the DASH-Sodium Trial." Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 103, no. 4, 2003, pp. 488-96.
    Lin PH, Aickin M, Champagne C, et al. Food group sources of nutrients in the dietary patterns of the DASH-Sodium trial. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003;103(4):488-96.
    Lin, P. H., Aickin, M., Champagne, C., Craddick, S., Sacks, F. M., McCarron, P., ... Haworth, L. (2003). Food group sources of nutrients in the dietary patterns of the DASH-Sodium trial. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 103(4), pp. 488-96.
    Lin PH, et al. Food Group Sources of Nutrients in the Dietary Patterns of the DASH-Sodium Trial. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003;103(4):488-96. PubMed PMID: 12669013.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Food group sources of nutrients in the dietary patterns of the DASH-Sodium trial. AU - Lin,Pao-Hwa, AU - Aickin,Mikel, AU - Champagne,Catherine, AU - Craddick,Shirley, AU - Sacks,Frank M, AU - McCarron,Phyllis, AU - Most-Windhauser,Marlene M, AU - Rukenbrod,Fran, AU - Haworth,Lauren, AU - ,, PY - 2003/4/2/pubmed PY - 2003/5/8/medline PY - 2003/4/2/entrez SP - 488 EP - 96 JF - Journal of the American Dietetic Association JO - J Am Diet Assoc VL - 103 IS - 4 N2 - The aim of this paper is to identify major food group sources of several essential nutrients in the two dietary patterns used in the DASH-Sodium trial: a control diet and the DASH dietary pattern. The DASH-Sodium trial was a multicenter, randomized, controlled-feeding trial comparing the effects of three levels of sodium and two dietary patterns on blood pressure. Nutrient contents of all the menus for both the control and the DASH diets were analyzed and examined for their dietary sources from 13 food groups. Contributions of all foods within each food group to each nutrient were averaged then weighted to reflect the actual distribution of energy levels in the study. Nutrient contents across the three sodium levels are very similar within each diet. Refined grains and whole grains are the major energy sources for the control and the DASH diet, providing 35% and 23% to the total intake, respectively. Nutrient-dense whole grains contributed greatly, ranging from 11% to 46%, to the higher intakes of protein, fiber, calcium, magnesium, potassium, zinc, and folate in the DASH diet. Vegetables, in addition to being a good source for fiber, vitamins A, C, E, and folate, also contributed an average of 15% to the intakes of magnesium, potassium, and calcium in the DASH diet. Differences in nutrient contents between the control and the DASH diets were accomplished by varying the selection of food items (eg, refined grains vs whole grains) and quantities of certain food groups (eg, less red meats and higher amounts of fruits and vegetables). The DASH dietary pattern recommends four to five servings of fruits; four to five servings of vegetables; two to three servings of low-fat dairy products; seven to eight servings of grain products (preferably whole grains); two or less servings of meats, poultry, and fish per day; and four to five servings of nuts, seeds, and legumes per week for a 2,000 kcal diet. Each of these food groups contributes critical nutrients across various sodium levels. It is important to emphasize all food groups when trying to follow this proven dietary pattern. SN - 0002-8223 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12669013/Food_group_sources_of_nutrients_in_the_dietary_patterns_of_the_DASH_Sodium_trial_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002822303000142 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -