Enteral nutrition delivery technique.Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2003 May; 6(3):313-7.CO
PURPOSE OF REVIEW
Ingestion and absorption of a nutritionally adequate diet is necessary to maintain normal body composition and organ function. Patients with all kinds of diseases are at increased risk of developing nutritional abnormalities from anorexia, dietary restriction, malabsorption, increased intestinal losses or altered nutrient requirements. Therefore, it is important for doctors to understand the general principles of clinical nutrition for optimal management of patients with various disorders. The purpose of this review is to highlight an important aspect of nutrition: methods for enteral nutrient delivery. Enteral feeding is the preferred method to provide nutritional support in patients who cannot or will not eat but who have a functional gastrointestinal tract. The placement of a small-diameter nasogastric or nasoduodenal tube is the simplest technique for feeding patients who are unlikely to require tube feeding for more than 6 weeks. Gastrostomy, gastrojejunostomy and jejunostomy tubes placed by using endoscopic, radiologic, or surgical techniques should be considered in patients who require long-term feeding. With newer endoscopic feeding techniques replacing more conventional surgical techniques, this review proposes to discuss the newer developments in techniques of enteral feeding.
This review will briefly discuss the principles governing nasoenteral feeding and will describe in detail the endoscopic assisted methods for placing enteral feeding tubes. These include percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, jejunal extension through a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy or direct endoscopic jejunostomy. It will also discuss the procedural complications and long term results of these methods of enteral feeding. Lastly the latest innovation in enteral feed - the one step button - is also discussed.
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy placement is an appropriate method for providing nutrition in ill patients if no contraindication to enteral feeding exists. In certain situations, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy placement may even be used to make the life of a terminally ill patient comfortable.