[The impact of food allergy in patients with atopic dermatitis].Hautarzt 2003; 54(2):121-9H
Besides other trigger factors food allergens have been shown to play a major role in the exacerbation and maintenance of eczematous lesions in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), particularly in children. Food allergy may not only present as a flare up up of eczema in these patients, but also immediate type reactions and mixed reactions can be observed under food challenge tests. Whereas cow's milk hen's egg, wheat and soy have been identified as important triggers in infants, pollen related foods like nuts, fruit und vegetable have a greater impact in adolescents and adult Food specific T cells have been identified as effector cells in food responsible eczema and food specific T cell clones could be generated from lesional skin of patients who reacted with a worsening of their AD upon oral challenge tests. Due to the poor reliability of in-vitro (RAST) and skin tests (skin prick test (SPT), atopy patch test (APT)) the double blind placebo controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) is regarded as the gold standard in the diagnostic work-up of food allergy. Once a food allergy has been diagnosed, a specific elimination diet represents the first line therapy, which has to consider the supplementation of essential nutrients.