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Fruits and vegetables are associated with lower lung cancer risk only in the placebo arm of the beta-carotene and retinol efficacy trial (CARET).

Abstract

Despite the unexpected results from the beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) and similar supplementation trials showing that supplementation with beta-carotene increased, rather than decreased, lung cancer incidence, considerable interest remains in investigating how other compounds in fruits and vegetables may affect lung cancer risk. We used data from 14,120 CARET participants who completed food frequency questionnaires to examine associations of diet with lung cancer risk. After 12 years of follow-up (1989-2001), 742 participants developed lung cancer. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate multivariate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Analyses were controlled for smoking, asbestos exposure, and other covariates. Analyses of specific botanical groups were also controlled for total fruit and vegetable intake. All models were stratified by CARET treatment arm, and all statistical tests were two-sided. Statistically significant associations of fruit and vegetable intake with lower lung cancer risk were restricted to the CARET placebo arm. The RR for highest versus lowest quintile of total fruit consumption in the placebo arm was 0.56 (95% CI, 0.39-0.81) with a two-sided P for trend = 0.003. Two specific botanical groups were associated with reduced risk of lung cancer. Compared with the lowest quintile of rosaceae fruit consumption, placebo participants in the top quintile had a RR of 0.63 (95% CI, 0.42-0.94; P for trend = 0.02); for cruciferae vegetables, the RR was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.45-1.04; P for trend = 0.01). We did not observe any statistically significant associations of fruit and vegetable intake with lung cancer risk among participants randomized to receive the CARET supplements (30 mg of beta-carotene and 25,000 IU of retinyl palmitate). This report provides evidence that plant foods have an important preventive influence in a population at high risk for lung cancer. However, persons who use beta-carotene supplements do not benefit from the protective compounds in plant foods.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109-1024, USA. mneuhos@fhcrc.org

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

12692110

Citation

Neuhouser, Marian L., et al. "Fruits and Vegetables Are Associated With Lower Lung Cancer Risk Only in the Placebo Arm of the Beta-carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET)." Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored By the American Society of Preventive Oncology, vol. 12, no. 4, 2003, pp. 350-8.
Neuhouser ML, Patterson RE, Thornquist MD, et al. Fruits and vegetables are associated with lower lung cancer risk only in the placebo arm of the beta-carotene and retinol efficacy trial (CARET). Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12(4):350-8.
Neuhouser, M. L., Patterson, R. E., Thornquist, M. D., Omenn, G. S., King, I. B., & Goodman, G. E. (2003). Fruits and vegetables are associated with lower lung cancer risk only in the placebo arm of the beta-carotene and retinol efficacy trial (CARET). Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored By the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 12(4), pp. 350-8.
Neuhouser ML, et al. Fruits and Vegetables Are Associated With Lower Lung Cancer Risk Only in the Placebo Arm of the Beta-carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET). Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12(4):350-8. PubMed PMID: 12692110.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Fruits and vegetables are associated with lower lung cancer risk only in the placebo arm of the beta-carotene and retinol efficacy trial (CARET). AU - Neuhouser,Marian L, AU - Patterson,Ruth E, AU - Thornquist,Mark D, AU - Omenn,Gilbert S, AU - King,Irena B, AU - Goodman,Gary E, PY - 2003/4/15/pubmed PY - 2003/9/27/medline PY - 2003/4/15/entrez SP - 350 EP - 8 JF - Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology JO - Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. VL - 12 IS - 4 N2 - Despite the unexpected results from the beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) and similar supplementation trials showing that supplementation with beta-carotene increased, rather than decreased, lung cancer incidence, considerable interest remains in investigating how other compounds in fruits and vegetables may affect lung cancer risk. We used data from 14,120 CARET participants who completed food frequency questionnaires to examine associations of diet with lung cancer risk. After 12 years of follow-up (1989-2001), 742 participants developed lung cancer. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate multivariate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Analyses were controlled for smoking, asbestos exposure, and other covariates. Analyses of specific botanical groups were also controlled for total fruit and vegetable intake. All models were stratified by CARET treatment arm, and all statistical tests were two-sided. Statistically significant associations of fruit and vegetable intake with lower lung cancer risk were restricted to the CARET placebo arm. The RR for highest versus lowest quintile of total fruit consumption in the placebo arm was 0.56 (95% CI, 0.39-0.81) with a two-sided P for trend = 0.003. Two specific botanical groups were associated with reduced risk of lung cancer. Compared with the lowest quintile of rosaceae fruit consumption, placebo participants in the top quintile had a RR of 0.63 (95% CI, 0.42-0.94; P for trend = 0.02); for cruciferae vegetables, the RR was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.45-1.04; P for trend = 0.01). We did not observe any statistically significant associations of fruit and vegetable intake with lung cancer risk among participants randomized to receive the CARET supplements (30 mg of beta-carotene and 25,000 IU of retinyl palmitate). This report provides evidence that plant foods have an important preventive influence in a population at high risk for lung cancer. However, persons who use beta-carotene supplements do not benefit from the protective compounds in plant foods. SN - 1055-9965 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12692110/Fruits_and_vegetables_are_associated_with_lower_lung_cancer_risk_only_in_the_placebo_arm_of_the_beta_carotene_and_retinol_efficacy_trial__CARET__ L2 - http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=12692110 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -