NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis of 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (CAS No. 96-18-4) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies).Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser 1993; 384:1-348NT
1,2,3-Trichloropropane is a colorless liquid used as a paint and varnish remover, solvent, and degreasing agent, and as a crosslinking agent in the synthesis of polysulfides and hexafluoropropylene. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane may be found as an impurity in certain nematocides and soil fumigants and as a contaminant of drinking and ground water. Studies on the toxic and carcinogenic effects of 1,2,3-trichloropropane were initiated because of the close structural relationship of this chemical to other short-chain halogenated compounds that were demonstrated to be carcinogenic in experimental animals, and because of the potential for human exposure. Toxicology and carcinogenicity studies were conducted by administering 1,2,3-trichloropropane (greater than 99% pure) in corn oil by gavage to groups of F344/N rats and B6C3FI mice for 17 weeks and 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium strains, mouse lymphoma cells, and Chinese hamster ovary cells. 17-Week Studies: Groups of 20 male and 20 female rats received 1,2,3-trichloropropane in corn oil by gavage at doses of 8, 16, 32, 63, 125, or 250 mg/kg body weight 5 days per week for up to 17 weeks; 30 male and 30 female rats received corn oil alone and served as controls. Animals were evaluated at 8 or 17 weeks. All rats in the 250 mg/kg groups died by week 5. One male and four female rats in the 125 mg/kg groups died during the study. The mean body weight gains and final mean body weights of males receiving 63 mg/kg and of males and females receiving 125 mg/kg were lower than those of the controls. Hematocrit values, hemoglobin concentrations, and erythrocyte counts decreased with dose in males and females. Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities were significantly increased in some female rats receiving 125 mg/kg. Serum pseudocholinesterase activity decreased with dose in females. Increases in kidney and liver weights were related to chemical administration. The principal toxic lesions associated with the administration of 1,2,3-trichloropropane to rats were hepatocellular necrosis, karyomegaly, and biliary hyperplasia of the liver; renal tubule necrosis, regeneration, and karyomegaly of the kidney; and necrosis and inflammation of the nasal olfactory and respiratory epithelium. Groups of 20 male and 20 female mice received 1,2,3-trichloropropane in corn oil by gavage at doses of 8, 16, 32, 63, 125, or 250 mg/kg 5 days per week for up to 17 weeks; 30 male and 30 female mice received corn oil alone and served as controls. Sixteen male and seven female mice in the 250 mg/kg groups died by week 4. The final mean body weights and mean body weight gains of dosed mice were similar to those of the controls, except those of 250 mg/kg males, which were lower than those of controls. The principal toxic lesions associated with the administration of 1,2,3-trichloropropane were hepatocellular necrosis and karyomegaly of the liver; necrosis, regeneration, and hyperplasia of the bronchiolar epithelium in the lung; and acanthosis (hyperplasia) and hyperkeratosis of the forestomach epithelium. 2-Year Studies: Groups of 60 male and 60 female rats received 0, 3, 10, or 30 mg 1,2,3-trichloropropane/kg body weight in corn oil by gavage 5 days per week for up to 104 weeks. Selection of 30 mg/kg as the high dose in these studies was based on the following chemical-related effects in the 17-week studies: deaths and liver and kidney lesions at 125 and 250 mg/kg and reduced final mean body weights and mean body weight gains at 63 mg/kg or greater. Groups of 60 male and 60 female mice received 0, 6, 20, or 60 mg 1,2,3-trichloropropane/kg body weight in corn oil by gavage 5 days per week for up to 104 weeks. Selection of 60 mg/kg as the high dose was based on chemical-related deaths and lesions of the liver, lung, and forestomach at 125 and 250 mg/kg in the 17-week studies. 15-Month Interim Evaluations: Up to 10 rats and 10 mice from each dose group were evaluated at 15 months. Absolute and relative liver and kidned kidney weights of dosed rats were significantly greater than those of the controls. Chemical-related nonneoplastic lesions and neoplasms of the forestomach, oral mucosa, pancreas (males), kidney, mammary gland (females), preputial gland, and clitoral gland were observed in dosed rats. Chemical-related nonneoplastic lesions and neoplasms of the forestomach and liver (females) were observed in dosed mice. Survival and Body Weight in the 2-Year Studies: Survival of male and female rats receiving 10 or 30 mg/kg 1,2,3-trichloropropane was significantly lower than that of controls. Two-year survival rates of male rats were: control, 34/50; 3 mg/kg, 32/50; 10 mg/kg, 14/49; 30 mg/kg, 0/52; and of females were: 31/50, 30/49, 8/52, 0/52. At 30 mg/kg, survival was markedly reduced due to chemical-related neoplasms, and survivors were killed in weeks 67 (females) or 77 (males). Final mean body weights of 30 mg/kg rats were 13% lower for males and 12% lower for females than those of controls; mean body weights of 3 and 10 mg/kg rats were similar to controls. Survival rates of mice receiving 6, 20, or 60 mg/kg 1,2,3-trichloropropane were also significantly lower than those of controls. Two-year survival rates of male mice were: 42/52, 18/51, 0/54, 0/56; and of female mice were: 41/50, 13/50, 0/51, 0/55. Because of reduced survival at 20 and 60 mg/kg due to chemical-related neoplasms, survivors were killed in weeks 73 (60 mg/kg females), 79 (60 mg/kg males), or 89 (20 mg/kg males and females). Final mean body weights were 16% lower for 60 mg/kg males, 18~ lower for 60 mg/kg females, and 13% lower for 20 mg/kg males than those of controls. Final mean body weights of 6 mg/kg males and females and 20 mg/kg females were similar to controls. Neoplasms and Nonneoplastic Lesions in the 2-Year Studies: Administration of 1,2,3-trichloropropane to rats induced benign and malignant neoplasms of the oral mucosa (pharynx and tongue), forestomach, and preputial and clitoral glands in males and females; benign neoplasms of the exocrine pancreas and kidney in males, and malignant neoplasms of the mammary gland in females. The incidences of squamous cell papillomas and carcinomas of the oral mucosa were significantly increased in 10 and 30 mg/kg rats, while the incidences of squamous cell papillomas or carcinomas (combined) of the forestomach were significantly increased in all dosed groups. The incidence of pancreatic acinar adenoma was significantly increased in dosed males, but not in dosed females. Similarly, the incidence of adenoma of the kidney was significantly increased in 10 and 30 mg/kg male rats only. The incidences of adenoma or carcinoma (combined) of the preputial gland in 30 mg/kg males and of the clitoral gland in 10 and 30 mg/kg females (homologous organs) were significantly increased. The incidence of adenocarcinoma of the mammary gland was significantly increased in the 10 and 30 mg/kg females. The incidences of Zymbal's gland carcinomas were increased in 30 mg/kg males and females. Adenocarcinomas of the intestine occurred in small numbers of dosed rats and may have been chemical related. In mice, the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa was significantly increased only in 60 mg/kg females. In contrast, the incidences of squamous cell papilloma and carcinoma of the forestomach were significantly increased in all groups of dosed mice. The incidences of hepatocellular adenoma or carcinoma (combined) were significantly increased in all dosed groups of males and 60 mg/kg females. The incidences of harderian gland adenoma were significantly increased in 20 mg/kg males and in 60 mg/kg males and females. The incidences of uterine adenoma, adenocarcinoma, and stromal polyp were significantly increased in 60 mg/kg females. Genetic Toxicology: 1,2,3-Trichloropropane was mutagenic in vitro in the presence of S9 metabolic activation. At two laboratories, positive responses were obtained for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, TA100, and TA1535 in the presence of S9; no mutagenic activity was observed in TA1537, with or without S9. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane induced trifluorothymidine resistance in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells with, but not without, S9. In cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, sister chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations were induced by 1,2,3-trichloropropane; however, significant increases in the endpoints of both cytogenetic effects occurred only in the presence of S9.