Pancreatic beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity in japanese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.Metabolism. 2003 Apr; 52(4):476-81.M
To clarify whether pancreatic beta-cell function and/or insulin resistance contributes to development of glucose intolerance in Japanese subjects, we investigated 551 subjects who underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Subjects were divided into 3 groups: normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 238), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n = 211), and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 102). The diabetics were subdivided into 3 subgroups as follows: diabetes with normal fasting glucose (fasting plasma glucose [FPG] < 110 mg/dL), diabetes with impaired fasting glucose (FPG 110 to 125 mg/dL), and diabetes with diabetic fasting glucose (FPG >or= 126 mg/dL). Insulinogenic index as early-phase insulin secretion, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-beta and HOMA-resistance), and 4 different formulas of insulin sensitivity index were assessed by plasma glucose and insulin concentrations obtained at fasting or during a 75-g OGTT. Both early-phase insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity were low even in the IGT stage compared with NGT. The transition from IGT to diabetes was accompanied by a progressive deterioration of insulin reserve as well as insulin resistance. During the further progression in diabetes, insulinogenic index decreased additionally, whereas declines in insulin sensitivity were relatively small. In conclusion, both impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance may contribute to the underlying mechanisms of glucose intolerance in Japanese subjects.