Intake of nutrients associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in a Spanish population.Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2003 Jan; 54(1):57-75.IJ
The daily intake of nutrients associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease was assessed in Spain to provide current data on adequance to the Spanish nutritional objectives and recommendations. The energy and nutrient distribution throughout the day was also determined. Nutrient intake data of 100 people (24 males and 76 females) aged 20-40 years living in Ponferrada (León, northwest Spain) were calculated from seven non-consecutive daily dietary records using Spanish food composition tables. The survey was carried out in the autumn of 2001. The average energy (E) intake was 2906.67 kcal (12.16 MJ)/day among men and 2106.95 kcal (8.82 MJ)/day among women, with total fat accounting for 39.21 E% (men) and 38.96 E% (women). Average saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were 13.03, 15.51 and 6.22 E% (men), and 12.20, 15.58 and 7.10 E% (women). The SFA:MUFA:PUFA ratios were 2.1:2.5:1.0 (men) and 1.7:2.2:1.0 (women), with adequate essential fatty acids (FA) amounts. PUFA n-3 FA daily intake (2.46 g and 1.68 g for men and women, respectively) was adjusted to the recommended levels, with a n-6/n-3 ratio of 7.14 (men) and 8.33 (women). Low trans-FA levels were reported both among male (3.10 g/day) and female (2.21 g/day) populations. High daily cholesterol intakes were found (440.87 mg for men and 359.14 mg for women). Average daily intakes of dietary fibre, alcohol, vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E, selenium and sodium were 20.14 and 15.68 g, 7.00 and 4.11 g, 736.00 and 739.28 retinol equivalents, 103.45 and 95.24 mg, 8.73 and 7.84 mg, 83.26 and 45.93 micrograms, and 3777.21 and 2488.12 mg for men and women, respectively. The vitamin E (mg):PUFA (g) ratios were 0.44 (male) and 0.46 (female). Dinner (10.00 p.m. approximately) showed the highest densities (g/1000 kcal) of fat and cholesterol, while breakfast had the highest densities of SFA and trans-FA, both in men and women. Our results advise a decrease in total fat, SFA, n-6 FA, cholesterol and sodium amounts. In contrast, energy intake and consumption of dietetic fibre, vitamins A and E (both sexes) and selenium (women) should be increased in the study population.