Volatile compounds of wines produced by cells immobilized on grape skins.J Agric Food Chem. 2003 May 07; 51(10):3060-6.JA
A biocatalyst was prepared by immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells on grape skins. Repeated batch fermentations were conducted using the immobilized biocatalyst as well as the free yeast cells at 25, 20, 15, and 10 degrees C. The major volatile byproducts were determined by GC, whereas the minor volatile constituents were extracted in dichloromethane and analyzed by HRGC-MS. The qualitative profiles of the wines produced were similar in every case. Immobilized cells gave wines with higher contents of ethyl and acetate esters that increased with temperature decreases from 25 to 15 degrees C. The amount of volatile alcohols was more pronounced in wines produced by free cells and decreased dramatically at low fermentation temperatures (10 degrees C).