Chemical composition of the essential oils of Juniperus from ripe and unripe berries and leaves and their antimicrobial activity.J Agric Food Chem. 2003 May 07; 51(10):3073-8.JA
The composition of the essential oil from ripe and unripe berries and leaves of Juniperus oxycedrus L. ssp. oxycedrus, Juniperus phoenicea ssp. turbinata and Juniperus communis ssp. communis was analyzed by GC-MS, and microbiological assays were carried out. Samples were collected in different localities (Sardinia, Italy) and hydro distilled. The yields ranged between 2.54% +/- 0.21 (v\w dried weight) and 0.04% +/- 0.00. A total of 36 components were identified. The major compounds in the essential oils were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, delta-3-carene, sabinene, myrcene, beta-phellandrene, limonene, and D-germacrene. Both qualitative and quantitative differences between species and between different parts of the plant were observed. The essential oils and their major compounds were tested against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined. The results obtained led to a nonsignificant inhibitory effect, although all the essential oils from Juniperus phoenicea ssp. turbinata and the essential oil from leaves of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus exhibited rather good or weak activity against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus.