Thermal and electrochemical C-X activation (X = Cl, Br, I) by the strong Lewis acid Pd3(dppm)3(CO)2+ cluster and its catalytic applications.J Am Chem Soc. 2003 May 07; 125(18):5511-22.JA
The stoichiometric and catalytic activations of alkyl halides and acid chlorides by the unsatured Pd(3)(dppm)(3)(CO)(2+) cluster (Pd(3)(2+)) are investigated in detail. A series of alkyl halides (R-X; R = t-Bu, Et, Pr, Bu, allyl; X = Cl, Br, I) react slowly with Pd(3)(2+) to form the corresponding Pd(3)(X)(+) adduct and "R(+)". This activation can proceed much faster if it is electrochemically induced via the formation of the paramagnetic species Pd(3)(+). The latter is the first confidently identified paramagnetic Pd cluster. The kinetic constants extracted from the evolution of the UV-vis spectra for the thermal activation, as well as the amount of electricity to bring the activation to completion for the electrochemically induced reactions, correlate the relative C-X bond strength and the steric factors. The highly reactive "R(+)" species has been trapped using phenol to afford the corresponding ether. On the other hand, the acid chlorides react rapidly with Pd(3)(2+) where no induction is necessary. The analysis of the cyclic voltammograms (CV) establishes that a dissociative mechanism operates (RCOCl --> RCO(+) + Cl(-); R = t-Bu, Ph) prior to Cl(-) scavenging by the Pd(3)(2+) species. For the other acid chlorides (R = n-C(6)H(13), Me(2)CH, Et, Me, Pr), a second associative process (Pd(3)(2+) + RCOCl --> Pd(3)(2+.....)Cl(CO)(R)) is seen. Addition of Cu(NCMe)(4)(+) or Ag(+) leads to the abstraction of Cl(-) from Pd(3)(Cl)(+) to form Pd(3)(2+) and the insoluble MCl materials (M = Cu, Ag) allowing to regenerate the starting unsaturated cluster, where the precipitation of MX drives the reaction. By using a copper anode, the quasi-quantitative catalytic generation of the acylium ion ("RCO(+)") operates cleanly and rapidly. The trapping of "RCO(+)" with PF(6)(-) or BF(4)(-) leads to the corresponding acid fluorides and, with an alcohol (R'OH), to the corresponding ester catalytically, under mild conditions. Attempts were made to trap the key intermediates "Pd(3)(Cl)(+)...M(+)" (M(+) = Cu(+), Ag(+)), which was successfully performed for Pd(3)(ClAg)(2+), as characterized by (31)P NMR, IR, and FAB mass spectrometry. During the course of this investigation, the rare case of PF(6)(-) hydrolysis has been observed, where the product PF(2)O(2)(-) anion is observed in the complex Pd(3)(PF(2)O(2))(+), where the substrate is well-located inside the cavity formed by the dppm-Ph groups above the unsatured face of the Pd(3)(2+) center. This work shows that Pd(3)(2+) is a stronger Lewis acid in CH(2)Cl(2) and THF than AlCl(3), Ag(+), Cu(+), and Tl(+).