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The genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis Ames and comparison to closely related bacteria.
Nature 2003; 423(6935):81-6Nat

Abstract

Bacillus anthracis is an endospore-forming bacterium that causes inhalational anthrax. Key virulence genes are found on plasmids (extra-chromosomal, circular, double-stranded DNA molecules) pXO1 (ref. 2) and pXO2 (ref. 3). To identify additional genes that might contribute to virulence, we analysed the complete sequence of the chromosome of B. anthracis Ames (about 5.23 megabases). We found several chromosomally encoded proteins that may contribute to pathogenicity--including haemolysins, phospholipases and iron acquisition functions--and identified numerous surface proteins that might be important targets for vaccines and drugs. Almost all these putative chromosomal virulence and surface proteins have homologues in Bacillus cereus, highlighting the similarity of B. anthracis to near-neighbours that are not associated with anthrax. By performing a comparative genome hybridization of 19 B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis strains against a B. anthracis DNA microarray, we confirmed the general similarity of chromosomal genes among this group of close relatives. However, we found that the gene sequences of pXO1 and pXO2 were more variable between strains, suggesting plasmid mobility in the group. The complete sequence of B. anthracis is a step towards a better understanding of anthrax pathogenesis.

Authors+Show Affiliations

The Institute for Genomic Research, 9712 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA. anthrax@tigr.org).No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

12721629

Citation

Read, Timothy D., et al. "The Genome Sequence of Bacillus Anthracis Ames and Comparison to Closely Related Bacteria." Nature, vol. 423, no. 6935, 2003, pp. 81-6.
Read TD, Peterson SN, Tourasse N, et al. The genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis Ames and comparison to closely related bacteria. Nature. 2003;423(6935):81-6.
Read, T. D., Peterson, S. N., Tourasse, N., Baillie, L. W., Paulsen, I. T., Nelson, K. E., ... Fraser, C. M. (2003). The genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis Ames and comparison to closely related bacteria. Nature, 423(6935), pp. 81-6.
Read TD, et al. The Genome Sequence of Bacillus Anthracis Ames and Comparison to Closely Related Bacteria. Nature. 2003 May 1;423(6935):81-6. PubMed PMID: 12721629.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis Ames and comparison to closely related bacteria. AU - Read,Timothy D, AU - Peterson,Scott N, AU - Tourasse,Nicolas, AU - Baillie,Les W, AU - Paulsen,Ian T, AU - Nelson,Karen E, AU - Tettelin,Hervé, AU - Fouts,Derrick E, AU - Eisen,Jonathan A, AU - Gill,Steven R, AU - Holtzapple,Erik K, AU - Okstad,Ole Andreas, AU - Helgason,Erlendur, AU - Rilstone,Jennifer, AU - Wu,Martin, AU - Kolonay,James F, AU - Beanan,Maureen J, AU - Dodson,Robert J, AU - Brinkac,Lauren M, AU - Gwinn,Michelle, AU - DeBoy,Robert T, AU - Madpu,Ramana, AU - Daugherty,Sean C, AU - Durkin,A Scott, AU - Haft,Daniel H, AU - Nelson,William C, AU - Peterson,Jeremy D, AU - Pop,Mihai, AU - Khouri,Hoda M, AU - Radune,Diana, AU - Benton,Jonathan L, AU - Mahamoud,Yasmin, AU - Jiang,Lingxia, AU - Hance,Ioana R, AU - Weidman,Janice F, AU - Berry,Kristi J, AU - Plaut,Roger D, AU - Wolf,Alex M, AU - Watkins,Kisha L, AU - Nierman,William C, AU - Hazen,Alyson, AU - Cline,Robin, AU - Redmond,Caroline, AU - Thwaite,Joanne E, AU - White,Owen, AU - Salzberg,Steven L, AU - Thomason,Brendan, AU - Friedlander,Arthur M, AU - Koehler,Theresa M, AU - Hanna,Philip C, AU - Kolstø,Anne-Brit, AU - Fraser,Claire M, PY - 2002/08/14/received PY - 2003/03/28/accepted PY - 2003/5/2/pubmed PY - 2003/5/22/medline PY - 2003/5/2/entrez SP - 81 EP - 6 JF - Nature JO - Nature VL - 423 IS - 6935 N2 - Bacillus anthracis is an endospore-forming bacterium that causes inhalational anthrax. Key virulence genes are found on plasmids (extra-chromosomal, circular, double-stranded DNA molecules) pXO1 (ref. 2) and pXO2 (ref. 3). To identify additional genes that might contribute to virulence, we analysed the complete sequence of the chromosome of B. anthracis Ames (about 5.23 megabases). We found several chromosomally encoded proteins that may contribute to pathogenicity--including haemolysins, phospholipases and iron acquisition functions--and identified numerous surface proteins that might be important targets for vaccines and drugs. Almost all these putative chromosomal virulence and surface proteins have homologues in Bacillus cereus, highlighting the similarity of B. anthracis to near-neighbours that are not associated with anthrax. By performing a comparative genome hybridization of 19 B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis strains against a B. anthracis DNA microarray, we confirmed the general similarity of chromosomal genes among this group of close relatives. However, we found that the gene sequences of pXO1 and pXO2 were more variable between strains, suggesting plasmid mobility in the group. The complete sequence of B. anthracis is a step towards a better understanding of anthrax pathogenesis. SN - 0028-0836 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12721629/The_genome_sequence_of_Bacillus_anthracis_Ames_and_comparison_to_closely_related_bacteria_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01586 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -