Multiple recombination pathways for sister chromatid exchange in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: role of RAD1 and the RAD52 epistasis group genes.Nucleic Acids Res. 2003 May 15; 31(10):2576-85.NA
Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) can occur by several recombination mechanisms, including those directly initiated by double-strand breaks (DSBs), such as gap repair and break-induced replication (BIR), and those initiated when DNA polymerases stall, such as template switching. To elucidate SCE recombination mechanisms, we determined whether spontaneous and DNA damage-associated SCE requires specific genes within the RAD52 and RAD3 epistasis groups in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains containing two his3 fragments, his3-Delta5' and his3-Delta3'::HOcs. SCE frequencies were measured after cells were exposed to UV, X-rays, 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), or when an HO endonuclease-induced DSB was introduced at his3-Delta3'::HOcs. Our data indicate that genes involved in gap repair, such as RAD55, RAD57 and RAD54, are required for DNA damage-associated SCE but not for spontaneous SCE. RAD50 and RAD59, genes required for BIR, are required for X-ray-associated SCE but not for SCE stimulated by HO-induced DSBs. In comparison with wild type, rates of spontaneous SCE are 10-fold lower in rad51 rad1 but not in either rad51 rad50 or rad51 rad59 double mutants. We propose that gap repair mechanisms are important in DNA damage-associated recombination, whereas alternative pathways, including a template switch pathway, play a role in spontaneous SCE.