A phylogeny of Chinese species in the genus Phrynocephalus (Agamidae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2003 Jun; 27(3):398-409.MP
We investigated the phylogenetic relationships among most Chinese species of lizards in the genus Phrynocephalus (118 individuals collected from 56 populations of 14 well-defined species and several unidentified specimens) using four mitochondrial gene fragments (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, cytochrome b, and ND4-tRNA(LEU)). The partition-homogeneity tests indicated that the combined dataset was homogeneous, and maximum-parsimony (MP), neighbor-joining (NJ), maximum-likelihood (ML) and Bayesian (BI) analyses were performed on this combined dataset (49 haplotypes including outgroups for 2058bp in total). The maximum-parsimony analysis resulted in 24 equally parsimonious trees, and their strict consensus tree shows that there are two major clades representing the Chinese Phrynocephalus species: the viviparous group (Clade A) and the oviparous group (Clade B). The trees derived from Bayesian, ML, and NJ analyses were topologically identical to the MP analysis except for the position of P. mystaceus. All analyses left the nodes for the oviparous group, the most basal clade within the oviparous group, and P. mystaceus unresolved. The phylogenies further suggest that the monophyly of the viviparous species may have resulted from vicariance, while recent dispersal may have been important in generating the pattern of variation among the oviparous species.