[Etiology and management of persistent hematospermia: a pilot study].Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2003 Apr; 9(2):118-21.ZN
To study the etiology of persistent hematospermia and to evaluate the efficacy of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided transperineal needle aspiration and irrigation for diagnosis and treatment of persistent hematospermia.
Twelve patients were included in the study, with a mean age of (36.4 +/- 10.8) years old, and a mean duration of the disease of (13.9 +/- 6.4) months. After the expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) by prostatic massage was cultured, patients with recurrent hematospermia received TRUS-guided transperineal needle aspiration for seminal vesicle fluid (SVF), which was sent for bacteriological and cytological examination. If the EPS culture were positive, certain antibiotics according to the drug sensitivity assay were injected into the abnormal seminal vesicle(s) via TRUS-guided transperineal needle puncture. The treatment would be repeated one month later if the patients still had hematospermia. The patients were followed up every three months.
Abnormal images were found in left seminal vesicle (SV) in 4 cases, right in 3 cases, bilateral in 2 cases, and no abnormal findings in 3 cases. The abnormal findings included: 7 cases of SV and/or ejaculatory duct dilation, 3 cases of thickening SV wall, 3 cases of calcification or calculi of SV, and 1 case of Müllerian duct cyst. SVF cultures were positive in 7 cases: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) 4 cases, methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (MRCNS), E. Coli, Proteus mirabilis 1 case, respectively. In five of these 7 cases, bacteriological cultures of SVF and EPS showed the same results. All patients were treated by TRUS-guided transperineal injection of certain antibiotics into SV. Seven cases were injected once, 5 cases twice. The mean follow-up period of 10 patients was (16.7 +/- 5.9) months. Hematospermia disappeared in 6 cases.
SV infection of bacteria, especially infection of the drug resistant strains was one of the main causes of persistent hematospermia. The difficulties in treatment of persistent hematospermia were due to infection of drug resistant bacteria, calcification or calculi of SV, obstruction of ejaculatory duct. TRUS-guided transperineal aspiration of SVF was helpful to the etiologic diagnosis of persistent hematospermia.