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Hypertension, diabetes, and longitudinal changes in intraocular pressure.

Abstract

PURPOSE

Diabetes and hypertension are recognized risk factors for raised intraocular pressure (IOP). This report examines the longitudinal relationship of hypertension and diabetes to a 4-year IOP change in a black population with high prevalence of these conditions.

DESIGN

Population-based cohort study of a simple random sample of residents of Barbados, West Indies, aged >/=40 years.

PARTICIPANTS

A total of 2996 persons without open-angle glaucoma or receiving IOP-lowering medication at baseline.

METHODS

Participants underwent standardized examinations including applanation tonometry, measurement of blood pressure, and anthropometric indices; a detailed interview; various ocular measurements; and venipuncture for glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb). Diabetes was defined by self-reported physician diagnosis and hypertension by blood pressure >/=140/90 mmHg and/or treatment history.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

The 4-year person-based IOP change between baseline and follow-up was defined as the more positive IOP difference in either eye.

RESULTS

An IOP >21 mmHg at baseline was more likely in black and in mixed (black and white) participants (age-gender adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.9 and 3.8, respectively) than in whites. Similarly, these groups had more hypertension (age-gender adjusted OR, 2.4 and 2.1, respectively) and diabetes (age-gender adjusted OR, 3.9 and 1.7, respectively) than did whites. Mean IOP in black participants increased by 2.5 (standard deviation, 3.9) mmHg over 4 years. Multiple regression analyses showed that baseline diabetes history and hypertension, as well as older age, elevated GHb, higher blood pressures, and lower baseline IOP were associated with a 4-year increase of IOP. The association between diabetes history/GHb and IOP increase became borderline/nonsignificant when persons who underwent cataract surgery during follow-up were excluded.

CONCLUSIONS

This report provides new data on the relationship of systemic factors to longitudinal increases in IOP in an African-origin population. Results highlight the increased risk of elevated IOP in populations with high prevalences of diabetes and hypertension.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    School of Clinical Medicine & Research, University of the West Indies, Barbados, West Indies.

    , , ,

    Source

    Ophthalmology 110:5 2003 May pg 908-14

    MeSH

    Adult
    African Continental Ancestry Group
    Age Distribution
    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Anthropometry
    Barbados
    Blood Pressure
    Cohort Studies
    Diabetes Mellitus
    Female
    Humans
    Hypertension
    Intraocular Pressure
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Ocular Hypertension
    Random Allocation
    Risk Factors
    Tonometry, Ocular

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    12750088

    Citation

    Hennis, Anselm, et al. "Hypertension, Diabetes, and Longitudinal Changes in Intraocular Pressure." Ophthalmology, vol. 110, no. 5, 2003, pp. 908-14.
    Hennis A, Wu SY, Nemesure B, et al. Hypertension, diabetes, and longitudinal changes in intraocular pressure. Ophthalmology. 2003;110(5):908-14.
    Hennis, A., Wu, S. Y., Nemesure, B., & Leske, M. C. (2003). Hypertension, diabetes, and longitudinal changes in intraocular pressure. Ophthalmology, 110(5), pp. 908-14.
    Hennis A, et al. Hypertension, Diabetes, and Longitudinal Changes in Intraocular Pressure. Ophthalmology. 2003;110(5):908-14. PubMed PMID: 12750088.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Hypertension, diabetes, and longitudinal changes in intraocular pressure. AU - Hennis,Anselm, AU - Wu,Suh-Yuh, AU - Nemesure,Barbara, AU - Leske,M Cristina, AU - ,, PY - 2003/5/17/pubmed PY - 2003/5/31/medline PY - 2003/5/17/entrez SP - 908 EP - 14 JF - Ophthalmology JO - Ophthalmology VL - 110 IS - 5 N2 - PURPOSE: Diabetes and hypertension are recognized risk factors for raised intraocular pressure (IOP). This report examines the longitudinal relationship of hypertension and diabetes to a 4-year IOP change in a black population with high prevalence of these conditions. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study of a simple random sample of residents of Barbados, West Indies, aged >/=40 years. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2996 persons without open-angle glaucoma or receiving IOP-lowering medication at baseline. METHODS: Participants underwent standardized examinations including applanation tonometry, measurement of blood pressure, and anthropometric indices; a detailed interview; various ocular measurements; and venipuncture for glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb). Diabetes was defined by self-reported physician diagnosis and hypertension by blood pressure >/=140/90 mmHg and/or treatment history. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The 4-year person-based IOP change between baseline and follow-up was defined as the more positive IOP difference in either eye. RESULTS: An IOP >21 mmHg at baseline was more likely in black and in mixed (black and white) participants (age-gender adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.9 and 3.8, respectively) than in whites. Similarly, these groups had more hypertension (age-gender adjusted OR, 2.4 and 2.1, respectively) and diabetes (age-gender adjusted OR, 3.9 and 1.7, respectively) than did whites. Mean IOP in black participants increased by 2.5 (standard deviation, 3.9) mmHg over 4 years. Multiple regression analyses showed that baseline diabetes history and hypertension, as well as older age, elevated GHb, higher blood pressures, and lower baseline IOP were associated with a 4-year increase of IOP. The association between diabetes history/GHb and IOP increase became borderline/nonsignificant when persons who underwent cataract surgery during follow-up were excluded. CONCLUSIONS: This report provides new data on the relationship of systemic factors to longitudinal increases in IOP in an African-origin population. Results highlight the increased risk of elevated IOP in populations with high prevalences of diabetes and hypertension. SN - 0161-6420 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12750088/Hypertension_diabetes_and_longitudinal_changes_in_intraocular_pressure_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0161-6420(03)00075-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -