Bacterial enteric pathogens in children with acute dysentery in Thailand: increasing importance of quinolone-resistant Campylobacter.Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2002 Dec; 33(4):752-7.SA
Current data on pathogen prevalence and drug resistance patterns are important for treatment and vaccine-development strategies. An etiologic study of acute bacterial dysentery was conducted in children up to 12 years of age in 2 major hospitals in and around Bangkok. Stool samples or rectal swabs and clinical data were collected. Standard microbiological methods were used to detect Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Vibrio, Aeromonas and Plesiomonas. Pathogenic E. coli (ETEC, EIEC, STEC) was identified by digoxigenin-labeled probes. A total of 623 cases were enrolled: median age 11.0 months (range 1 month-12 years). At least one bacterial pathogen was isolated in 55% of cases. Campylobacter was the most common pathogen found (28%), whereas Salmonella, Shigella and ETEC were isolated from 18%, 9% and 6% respectively. EIEC, Vibrio and Plesiomonas were isolated from <1% and no STEC was detected. C. jejuni serotypes 36, 4 and 11 were the most common. The mean age of cases with Campylobacter was significantly lower than with Shigella (17.9 vs 52.8 months, p<0.001). Clinical presentations of Campylobacter and Shigella infections were compared: fever (28% vs 37%), abdominal colic (62% vs 80%, p<0.05), vomiting (38% vs 70%, p<0.001) and bloody stools (52% vs 48%). The Campylobacter isolates (80% C. jejuni, 20% C. coli) were 90% resistant to ciprofloxacin but sensitive to macrolides. All the Shigella isolates (70% S. sonnei) were sensitive to quinolones. Our study illustrates the increasing importance of quinolone-resistant Campylobacter and the decline of Shigella in the etiology of dysentery in Thailand. The clinical presentation of campylobacteriosis is similar to that of shigellosis, except that the patients may be younger and there may be less association with colic and vomiting; having fecal leukocytes will be >10/HPF. The use of macrolide antibiotics rather than quinolones would be reasonable in children <24 months of age; fluoroquinolones will be ineffective in at least half of culture-positive cases.