Metabolic effects of chronic glipizide gastrointestinal therapeutic system on serum glucose, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin extraction in glucose-tolerant, first-degree relatives of African American patients with type 2 diabetes: new insights on mechanisms of action.Metabolism. 2003 May; 52(5):565-72.M
We examined the long-term metabolic effects of a potent sulfonylurea (SU), glipizide gastrointestinal therapeutic system (glipizide GITS) in normal glucose-tolerant (NGT), first-degree relatives of African American patients with type 2 diabetes in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind manner for 24 months and 6 months after discontinuation of glipizide GITS. Fifty NGT African American first-degree relatives (n = 50)) were randomized to receive either glipizide GITS (GITS, 5 mg/d) or identical placebo (PLAC). The NGT consisted of NGT/GITS (n = 16; mean age, 43.1 +/- 8.7years; body mass index [BMI], 34.8 +/- 10) and NGT/PLAC (n = 34; 45.5 +/- 9.7 years; BMI, 31.3 +/- 3.1years). Each of the subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT) at baseline and at yearly intervals for 2 years. Insulin sensitivity (Si) and glucose effectiveness (Sg) were determined by Bergman's minimal model method. Hepatic insulin extraction (HIE) was calculated as the molar ratio of C-peptide and insulin. The mean fasting serum glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels in the NGT/GITS were not different from that of the NGT/PLAC. After oral glucose challenge, mean serum glucose responses slightly increased (P = not significant [NS]) at 12 and 24 months in the NGT/GITS group when compared with the baseline, 0 month, but remained unchanged in the NGT/PLAC group. In addition, serum insulin and C-peptide responses significantly increased in the NGT/GITS group, but were unchanged in the NGT/PLAC group at 12 and 24 months versus 0 month. The HIE, during OGTT, decreased by 30% from the baseline (0 month) values in the NGT/ GITS, but remained unchanged in the NGT/PLAC group at 12 and 24 months. Mean Si decreased by 30% from the baseline in the NGT/GITS group by 12 and 24 months, but remained unchanged in the NGT/PLAC group. However, the disposition index (DI) remained normal in the NGT/GITS and the NGT/PLAC groups. The DI data in the NGT/GITS group suggested that beta cells maintained the ability to compensate for the lower Si during the chronic GITS administration in our high risk African Americans. Chronic GITS was well tolerated without any symptoms of either hypoglycemia or weight gain in the NGT/IGTS group. After discontinuation of GITS, the altered metabolic parameters significantly improved, returning to baseline values in the NGT/IGTS group in 6 months. In summary, chronic glipizide GITS administration (5 mg/d) was associated with increased beta-cell secretion, peripheral hyperinsulinemia, reduced Si, and reduced HIE in glucose-tolerant, first-degree relatives of African American patients with type 2 diabetes. These metabolic changes were reversible within 6 months after discontinuation of glipizide GITS. Our study defines a unique mode of action of glipizide GITS in African Americans at high risk for type 2 diabetes. We conclude that the use of glipizide GITS in the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes in nondiabetic first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes impaired glucose homeostasis.