The effect of different types of smoking habits on periodontal attachment.J Int Acad Periodontol. 2003 Apr; 5(2):41-6.JI
The association between different types of smoking (cigarette, Shesha and Argela) and periodontal attachment loss was investigated in the Riyadh area. The study group included 150 subject 20-60 years of age. Of this, 27.5% were cigarette smokers, 20.3% were Shesha smokers, 20.3% were Argela smokers, and 32% were non-smokers (females 24.2%: 74% males). The study was based on clinical examination, periodontal parameters recorded by one examiner (AS) and included measurement of pocket depth (PD 1) followed by measurement of recession from the CEJ to gingival margin (GR 2). Attachment loss (AL) was calculated by adding recession or by subtracting gingival overgrowth to measurements of probing depth. The readings were taken from buccal and lingual surfaces of all teeth except third molars. The influence of age, sex and different types of smoking consumption on these periodontal parameters was statistically evaluated using an analysis of variance (ANOVA). The effect of smoking on periodontitis showed no association with sex, but it was associated with age. By performing both univariate and multivariate tests. P-value for smoking and periodontitis were GR (p = 0.0001), PD (p = 0.0001), and AL (p = 0.0001). The result showed that there is increased loss of attachment in smokers than non-smokers. However, when comparing Shesha smokers to cigarette smokers it was found that Shesha smokers had a greater attachment loss (p = 0.0001), recession (p= 0.0001) and deeper pocket depth (p = 0.001) than cigarette and Argela smokers. These findings suggest that all types of tobacco consumption increase periodontal disease severity and Shesha smoking had a greater effect than cigarette and Argela smoking on disease severity. This study confirms that tobacco is an important risk factor for periodontal disease. Since Shesha smoking is widely used among Saudi subjects of both sexes, additional studies should be conducted to study the effect of Shesha smoking on the periodontium.