Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 inhibits the growth of human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.J Biol Chem 2003; 278(32):29676-85JB
The role of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)-5 in human breast cancer cell growth is unclear. We determined the effects of IGFBP-5 expression on the growth of human breast cancer cell lines in vivo and in vitro. Expression of IGFBP-5, both by stable transfection and adenoviral-mediated infection, was inhibitory to the growth of MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T human breast cancer cells over a 13-day period. IGFBP-5 expression resulted in a G2/M cell cycle arrest and the induction of apoptosis in both cell lines, an effect that was abrogated in the presence of the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk. IGFBP-5-induced apoptosis was associated with a transcriptional increase in expression of the proapoptotic regulator bax and decrease in the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 compared with vector controls. Secreted IGFBP-5 when added exogenously to breast cancer cells was not internalized and had no effect on cell growth or apoptosis, suggesting that IGFBP-5 may elicit its inhibitory effects via a novel, intracrine mechanism. In athymic nude mice, stable expression of IGFBP-5 significantly inhibited both the formation and growth of tumors derived from MDA-MB-231 cells. IGFBP-5-expressing tumors also had a significantly elevated level of bax mRNA and decreased levels of bcl-2 mRNA compared with vector tumors. These data suggest that IGFBP-5 is a potent growth inhibitor and proapoptotic agent in human breast cancer cells via modulation of cell cycle regulation and apoptotic mediators.