Management of urinary tract infections.Indian J Pediatr 2003; 70(3):235-9IJ
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in childhood. It may result in long-term complications due to renal scaring. Younger children are at higher risk of renal scarring. The diagnosis of UTI is based on urine culture. The bacterial count for diagnosis of UTI depends on the method of urine collection. Urinalysis is useful for making a presumptive diagnosis of UTI and allows initiation of empirical treatment in high-risk patients, after urine culture has been obtained. The treatment of UTI is guided by the severity of illness and age of the patient. Following a UTI, investigation should be performed to identify an underlying urinary tract anomaly. Recurrence of UTI occurs in 30-50% children. Important predisposing factors include VUR, urinary tract obstruction, voiding dysfunction and constipation. Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) is seen in 30-50% children with UTI. The cornerstone of management of VUR is long-term antibiotic prophylaxis, which has been found to be as effective as surgical reimplantation.