The influence of a 6.5% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution on performance of prolonged intermittent high-intensity running at 30 degrees C.
Nine male student games players consumed either flavoured water (0.1 g carbohydrate, Na+ 6 mmol x l(-1)), a solution containing 6.5% carbohydrate-electrolytes (6.5 g carbohydrate, Na+ 21 mmol x l(-1)) or a taste placebo (Na+ 2 mmol x l(-1)) during an intermittent shuttle test performed on three separate occasions at an ambient temperature of 30 degrees C (dry bulb). The test involved five 15-min sets of repeated cycles of walking and variable speed running, each separated by a 4-min rest (part A of the test), followed by 60 s run/60 s rest until exhaustion (part B of the test). The participants drank 6.5 ml x kg(-1) of fluid as a bolus just before exercise and thereafter 4.5 ml x kg(-1) during every exercise set and rest period (19 min). There was a trial order effect. The total distance completed by the participants was greater in trial 3 (8441 +/- 873 m) than in trial 1 (6839 +/- 512, P < 0.05). This represented a 19% improvement in exercise capacity. However, the trials were performed in a random counterbalanced order and the participants completed 8634 +/- 653 m, 7786 +/- 741 m and 7099 +/- 647 m in the flavoured water (FW), placebo (P) and carbohydrate-electrolyte (CE) trials, respectively (P = 0.08). Sprint performance was not different between the trials but was impaired over time (FW vs P vs CE: set 1, 2.41 +/- 0.02 vs 2.39 +/- 0.03 vs 2.39 +/- 0.03 s; end set, 2.46 +/- 0.03 vs 2.47 +/- 0.03 vs 2.47 +/- 0.02 s; main effect time, P < 0.01). The rate of rise in rectal temperature was greater in the carbohydrate-electrolyte trial (rise in rectal temperature/duration of trial, degrees C x h(-1); FW vs CE, P < 0.05; P vs CE, N.S.). Blood glucose concentrations were higher in the carbohydrate-electrolyte than in the other two trials (FW vs P vs CE:rest, 4.4 +/- 0.1 vs 4.3 +/- 0.1 vs 4.2 +/- 0.1 mmol x l(-1); end of exercise, 5.4 +/- 0.3 vs 6.4 +/- 0.6 vs 7.2 +/- 0.5 mmol x l(-1); main effect trial, P < 0.05; main effect time, P < 0.01). Plasma free fatty acid concentrations at the end of exercise were lower in the carbohydrate-electrolyte trial than in the other two trials (FW vs P vs CE: 0.57 +/- 0.08 vs 0.53 +/- 0.11 vs 0.29 +/- 0.04 mmol x l(-1); interaction, P < 0.01). The correlation between the rate of rise in rectal temperature (degrees C x h(-1)) and the distance completed was -0.91, -0.92 and -0.96 in the flavoured water, placebo and carbohydrate-electrolyte conditions, respectively (P < 0.01). Heart rate, blood pressure, plasma ammonia, blood lactate, plasma volume and rate of perceived exertion were not different between the three fluid trials. Although drinking the carbohydrate-electrolyte solution induced greater metabolic changes than the flavoured water and placebo solutions, it is unlikely that in these unacclimated males carbohydrate availability was a limiting factor in the performance of intermittent running in hot environmental conditions.
Institute of Youth Sport and Human Muscle Metabolism Research Group, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org, , ,
Body Temperature Regulation
Fatty Acids, Nonesterified
Task Performance and Analysis
Pub Type(s)Clinical Trial
Randomized Controlled Trial