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Azithromycin. A review of its antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and clinical efficacy.
Drugs. 1992 Nov; 44(5):750-99.D

Abstract

Azithromycin is an acid stable orally administered macrolide antimicrobial drug, structurally related to erythromycin, with a similar spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Azithromycin is marginally less active than erythromycin in vitro against Gram-positive organisms, although this is of doubtful clinical significance as susceptibility concentrations fall within the range of achievable tissue azithromycin concentrations. In contrast, azithromycin appears to be more active than erythromycin against many Gram-negative pathogens and several other pathogens, notably Haemophilus influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Urea-plasma urealyticum and Borrelia burgdorferi. Like erythromycin and other macrolides, the activity of azithromycin is unaffected by the production of beta-lactamase. However, erythromycin-resistant organisms are also resistant to azithromycin. Following oral administration, serum concentrations of azithromycin are lower than those of erythromycin, but this reflects the rapid and extensive movement of the drug from the circulation into intracellular compartments resulting in tissue concentrations exceeding those commonly seen with erythromycin. Azithromycin is subsequently slowly released, reflecting its long terminal phase elimination half-life relative to that of erythromycin. These factors allow for a single dose or single daily dose regimen in most infections, with the potential for increased compliance among outpatients where a more frequent antimicrobial regimen might traditionally be indicated. The potential disadvantage of low azithromycin serum concentrations, however, is that breakthrough bacteraemia may occur in patients who are severely ill; nevertheless, animal studies suggest that tissue concentrations of azithromycin are more important than those in serum when treating respiratory and other infections. The clinical efficacy of azithromycin has been confirmed in the treatment of infections of the lower and upper respiratory tracts (the latter including paediatric patients), skin and soft tissues (again including paediatric patients), in uncomplicated urethritis/cervicitis associated with N. gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis or U. urealyticum and in the treatment of early Lyme disease. Azithromycin was as effective as erythromycin and other commonly used drugs including clarithromycin, beta-lactams (penicillins and cephalosporins), and quinolone and tetracycline antibiotics in some of the above infections. Some patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis due to H. influenzae may be refractory to therapy with azithromycin (as is the case with erythromycin) indicating the need for physician vigilance, although it should be noted that azithromycin is of equivalent efficacy to amoxicillin in the treatment of such patients. In the therapy of urethritis/cervicitis associated with C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoea or U. urealyticum, a single dose azithromycin regimen offers a distinct advantage over currently available pharmacological options, while providing effective therapy.(

ABSTRACT

TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Authors+Show Affiliations

Adis International Limited, Auckland, New Zealand.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

1280567

Citation

Peters, D H., et al. "Azithromycin. a Review of Its Antimicrobial Activity, Pharmacokinetic Properties and Clinical Efficacy." Drugs, vol. 44, no. 5, 1992, pp. 750-99.
Peters DH, Friedel HA, McTavish D. Azithromycin. A review of its antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and clinical efficacy. Drugs. 1992;44(5):750-99.
Peters, D. H., Friedel, H. A., & McTavish, D. (1992). Azithromycin. A review of its antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and clinical efficacy. Drugs, 44(5), 750-99.
Peters DH, Friedel HA, McTavish D. Azithromycin. a Review of Its Antimicrobial Activity, Pharmacokinetic Properties and Clinical Efficacy. Drugs. 1992;44(5):750-99. PubMed PMID: 1280567.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Azithromycin. A review of its antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and clinical efficacy. AU - Peters,D H, AU - Friedel,H A, AU - McTavish,D, PY - 1992/11/1/pubmed PY - 1992/11/1/medline PY - 1992/11/1/entrez SP - 750 EP - 99 JF - Drugs JO - Drugs VL - 44 IS - 5 N2 - Azithromycin is an acid stable orally administered macrolide antimicrobial drug, structurally related to erythromycin, with a similar spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Azithromycin is marginally less active than erythromycin in vitro against Gram-positive organisms, although this is of doubtful clinical significance as susceptibility concentrations fall within the range of achievable tissue azithromycin concentrations. In contrast, azithromycin appears to be more active than erythromycin against many Gram-negative pathogens and several other pathogens, notably Haemophilus influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Urea-plasma urealyticum and Borrelia burgdorferi. Like erythromycin and other macrolides, the activity of azithromycin is unaffected by the production of beta-lactamase. However, erythromycin-resistant organisms are also resistant to azithromycin. Following oral administration, serum concentrations of azithromycin are lower than those of erythromycin, but this reflects the rapid and extensive movement of the drug from the circulation into intracellular compartments resulting in tissue concentrations exceeding those commonly seen with erythromycin. Azithromycin is subsequently slowly released, reflecting its long terminal phase elimination half-life relative to that of erythromycin. These factors allow for a single dose or single daily dose regimen in most infections, with the potential for increased compliance among outpatients where a more frequent antimicrobial regimen might traditionally be indicated. The potential disadvantage of low azithromycin serum concentrations, however, is that breakthrough bacteraemia may occur in patients who are severely ill; nevertheless, animal studies suggest that tissue concentrations of azithromycin are more important than those in serum when treating respiratory and other infections. The clinical efficacy of azithromycin has been confirmed in the treatment of infections of the lower and upper respiratory tracts (the latter including paediatric patients), skin and soft tissues (again including paediatric patients), in uncomplicated urethritis/cervicitis associated with N. gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis or U. urealyticum and in the treatment of early Lyme disease. Azithromycin was as effective as erythromycin and other commonly used drugs including clarithromycin, beta-lactams (penicillins and cephalosporins), and quinolone and tetracycline antibiotics in some of the above infections. Some patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis due to H. influenzae may be refractory to therapy with azithromycin (as is the case with erythromycin) indicating the need for physician vigilance, although it should be noted that azithromycin is of equivalent efficacy to amoxicillin in the treatment of such patients. In the therapy of urethritis/cervicitis associated with C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoea or U. urealyticum, a single dose azithromycin regimen offers a distinct advantage over currently available pharmacological options, while providing effective therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) SN - 0012-6667 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/1280567/Azithromycin__A_review_of_its_antimicrobial_activity_pharmacokinetic_properties_and_clinical_efficacy_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00003495-199244050-00007 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -