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Multinational study of major breast milk carotenoids of healthy mothers.
Eur J Nutr. 2003 Jun; 42(3):133-41.EJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Carotenoids in serum vary between countries and within populations with evidence suggesting a qualitative relationship to diet. Breast milk carotenoids furnish a source of vitamin A and potentially provide immunoprotection and other health benefits for infants. There have been numerous studies of milk carotenoid concentrations in undernourished populations; however, carotenoid concentrations have not previously been compared in populations of well-nourished mothers.

AIM OF STUDY

To compare concentrations of five major carotenoid groups: alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene in breast milk of healthy women from Australia, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Mexico, the Philippines, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and to qualitatively compare patterns of dietary intake with milk carotenoid concentrations.

METHODS

Breast milk collected from healthy lactating women was analyzed for concentrations of five carotenoids and retinol and quantitated relative to total milk lipid. All determinations were performed in a single research laboratory using standardized methodology. Mothers consumed their usual diets and provided a single 24-h dietary recall.

RESULTS

Breast milk carotenoid concentrations varied greatly among countries, with the greatest differences in beta-cryptoxanthin (approximately 9-fold) and the least in alpha-carotene and lycopene (approximately 3-fold). Breast milk retinol concentrations varied approximately 2-fold across countries. The provitamin A carotenoids alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin as a group accounted for > 50 % of the carotenoids measured. Total breast milk carotenoids were highest in Japanese and lowest in Philippine mothers. Breast milk beta-carotene concentrations were highest in Chile and lowest in the Philippines.

CONCLUSIONS

Patterns of breast milk carotenoids were unique to each country and qualitative patterns reflected the dietary carotenoid supply.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA. lmcanfie@email.arizona.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

12811470

Citation

Canfield, Louise M., et al. "Multinational Study of Major Breast Milk Carotenoids of Healthy Mothers." European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 42, no. 3, 2003, pp. 133-41.
Canfield LM, Clandinin MT, Davies DP, et al. Multinational study of major breast milk carotenoids of healthy mothers. Eur J Nutr. 2003;42(3):133-41.
Canfield, L. M., Clandinin, M. T., Davies, D. P., Fernandez, M. C., Jackson, J., Hawkes, J., Goldman, W. J., Pramuk, K., Reyes, H., Sablan, B., Sonobe, T., & Bo, X. (2003). Multinational study of major breast milk carotenoids of healthy mothers. European Journal of Nutrition, 42(3), 133-41.
Canfield LM, et al. Multinational Study of Major Breast Milk Carotenoids of Healthy Mothers. Eur J Nutr. 2003;42(3):133-41. PubMed PMID: 12811470.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Multinational study of major breast milk carotenoids of healthy mothers. AU - Canfield,Louise M, AU - Clandinin,M Thomas, AU - Davies,David P, AU - Fernandez,Maria C, AU - Jackson,Joan, AU - Hawkes,Jo, AU - Goldman,William J, AU - Pramuk,Kathryn, AU - Reyes,Horacio, AU - Sablan,Benjamin, AU - Sonobe,Tomoyoshi, AU - Bo,Xu, PY - 2003/6/18/pubmed PY - 2003/12/3/medline PY - 2003/6/18/entrez SP - 133 EP - 41 JF - European journal of nutrition JO - Eur J Nutr VL - 42 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Carotenoids in serum vary between countries and within populations with evidence suggesting a qualitative relationship to diet. Breast milk carotenoids furnish a source of vitamin A and potentially provide immunoprotection and other health benefits for infants. There have been numerous studies of milk carotenoid concentrations in undernourished populations; however, carotenoid concentrations have not previously been compared in populations of well-nourished mothers. AIM OF STUDY: To compare concentrations of five major carotenoid groups: alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene in breast milk of healthy women from Australia, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Mexico, the Philippines, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and to qualitatively compare patterns of dietary intake with milk carotenoid concentrations. METHODS: Breast milk collected from healthy lactating women was analyzed for concentrations of five carotenoids and retinol and quantitated relative to total milk lipid. All determinations were performed in a single research laboratory using standardized methodology. Mothers consumed their usual diets and provided a single 24-h dietary recall. RESULTS: Breast milk carotenoid concentrations varied greatly among countries, with the greatest differences in beta-cryptoxanthin (approximately 9-fold) and the least in alpha-carotene and lycopene (approximately 3-fold). Breast milk retinol concentrations varied approximately 2-fold across countries. The provitamin A carotenoids alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin as a group accounted for > 50 % of the carotenoids measured. Total breast milk carotenoids were highest in Japanese and lowest in Philippine mothers. Breast milk beta-carotene concentrations were highest in Chile and lowest in the Philippines. CONCLUSIONS: Patterns of breast milk carotenoids were unique to each country and qualitative patterns reflected the dietary carotenoid supply. SN - 1436-6207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12811470/Multinational_study_of_major_breast_milk_carotenoids_of_healthy_mothers_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-003-0403-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -