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The association between lung and prostate cancer risk, and serum micronutrients: results and lessons learned from beta-carotene and retinol efficacy trial.

Abstract

beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial is a nationwide chemoprevention trial that recruited 18,314 high-risk individuals to test the effect of supplemental beta-carotene and retinol on lung cancer incidence. In this report, we conducted a prospective nested case-control study of the association between serum carotenoids, retinoids, and tocopherols on both lung and prostate cancer incidence. Prerandomization serum samples were selected from 278 lung cancer cases and 205 prostate cancer cases, and 483 controls matched by high-risk population, study center location, age, sex (lung cancer only), smoking status, and year of randomization. Carotenoids, retinoids, and tocopherols were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Endpoints were confirmed by pathology review (lung cancer) or review of the pathology report (prostate cancer). In the control-only population, there was a significant association between tobacco use and serum micronutrient concentration. Current smokers compared with former smokers had lower mean levels of all of the micronutrients tested with zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, retinol, and retinyl palmitate reaching statistical significance at P = 0.05. In the overall population, the mean serum concentrations of all of the micronutrients except gamma-tocopherol were lower for lung cancer cases than controls. Statistically significant trends across quartiles were observed in lutein (P = 0.02), zeaxanthin (P = 0.02), and alpha-tocopherol (P = 0.03). The carotenoid findings in the overall population were because of the strong inverse association between serum micronutrients and lung cancer in females. Statistically significant odds ratios (ORs) comparing 4(th) to 1st quartiles in the female population were seen in lutein [OR, 0.31; confidence interval (CI), 0.13-0.75], zeaxanthin (OR, 0.31; CI, 0.12-0.77), and beta-cryptoxanthin (OR, 0.34; CI, 0.14-0.81). For prostate cancer, mean serum concentrations were lower in cases for all of the nutrients except alpha-carotene. Only for alpha-tocopherol (P(trend) = 0.04) were the findings statistically significant. There was no statistically significant association between serum carotenoids and prostate cancer. Our findings provide additional support for the association between physiological levels of dietary micronutrients and cancer incidence.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA. gary.goodman@swedish.org

    , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Aged
    Antioxidants
    Biomarkers, Tumor
    Carotenoids
    Case-Control Studies
    Double-Blind Method
    Female
    Humans
    Lung Neoplasms
    Male
    Micronutrients
    Middle Aged
    Prospective Studies
    Prostatic Neoplasms
    Risk Factors
    Smoking
    Statistics as Topic
    Treatment Outcome
    Vitamin A
    alpha-Tocopherol
    beta Carotene
    gamma-Tocopherol

    Pub Type(s)

    Clinical Trial
    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    12814997

    Citation

    Goodman, Gary E., et al. "The Association Between Lung and Prostate Cancer Risk, and Serum Micronutrients: Results and Lessons Learned From Beta-carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial." Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored By the American Society of Preventive Oncology, vol. 12, no. 6, 2003, pp. 518-26.
    Goodman GE, Schaffer S, Omenn GS, et al. The association between lung and prostate cancer risk, and serum micronutrients: results and lessons learned from beta-carotene and retinol efficacy trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12(6):518-26.
    Goodman, G. E., Schaffer, S., Omenn, G. S., Chen, C., & King, I. (2003). The association between lung and prostate cancer risk, and serum micronutrients: results and lessons learned from beta-carotene and retinol efficacy trial. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored By the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 12(6), pp. 518-26.
    Goodman GE, et al. The Association Between Lung and Prostate Cancer Risk, and Serum Micronutrients: Results and Lessons Learned From Beta-carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12(6):518-26. PubMed PMID: 12814997.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - The association between lung and prostate cancer risk, and serum micronutrients: results and lessons learned from beta-carotene and retinol efficacy trial. AU - Goodman,Gary E, AU - Schaffer,Steven, AU - Omenn,Gilbert S, AU - Chen,Chu, AU - King,Irena, PY - 2003/6/20/pubmed PY - 2004/2/6/medline PY - 2003/6/20/entrez SP - 518 EP - 26 JF - Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology JO - Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. VL - 12 IS - 6 N2 - beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial is a nationwide chemoprevention trial that recruited 18,314 high-risk individuals to test the effect of supplemental beta-carotene and retinol on lung cancer incidence. In this report, we conducted a prospective nested case-control study of the association between serum carotenoids, retinoids, and tocopherols on both lung and prostate cancer incidence. Prerandomization serum samples were selected from 278 lung cancer cases and 205 prostate cancer cases, and 483 controls matched by high-risk population, study center location, age, sex (lung cancer only), smoking status, and year of randomization. Carotenoids, retinoids, and tocopherols were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Endpoints were confirmed by pathology review (lung cancer) or review of the pathology report (prostate cancer). In the control-only population, there was a significant association between tobacco use and serum micronutrient concentration. Current smokers compared with former smokers had lower mean levels of all of the micronutrients tested with zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, retinol, and retinyl palmitate reaching statistical significance at P = 0.05. In the overall population, the mean serum concentrations of all of the micronutrients except gamma-tocopherol were lower for lung cancer cases than controls. Statistically significant trends across quartiles were observed in lutein (P = 0.02), zeaxanthin (P = 0.02), and alpha-tocopherol (P = 0.03). The carotenoid findings in the overall population were because of the strong inverse association between serum micronutrients and lung cancer in females. Statistically significant odds ratios (ORs) comparing 4(th) to 1st quartiles in the female population were seen in lutein [OR, 0.31; confidence interval (CI), 0.13-0.75], zeaxanthin (OR, 0.31; CI, 0.12-0.77), and beta-cryptoxanthin (OR, 0.34; CI, 0.14-0.81). For prostate cancer, mean serum concentrations were lower in cases for all of the nutrients except alpha-carotene. Only for alpha-tocopherol (P(trend) = 0.04) were the findings statistically significant. There was no statistically significant association between serum carotenoids and prostate cancer. Our findings provide additional support for the association between physiological levels of dietary micronutrients and cancer incidence. SN - 1055-9965 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12814997/The_association_between_lung_and_prostate_cancer_risk_and_serum_micronutrients:_results_and_lessons_learned_from_beta_carotene_and_retinol_efficacy_trial_ L2 - http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=12814997 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -