[Continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance among nosocomial gram-negative bacilli from intensive care units in China].Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2003 Mar 10; 83(5):375-81.ZY
To investigate the change of antimicrobial resistance among nosocomial gram-negative bacilli, especially those of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from intensive care units from 1994 to 2001 in China.
E test was made to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 10 279 isolates of gram-negative bacilli (including 5 829 strains of bacilli of Enterobacteriaceae) from 32 hospitals in China from 1994 to 2001.
The most common pathogens were Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, Acinetobacter spp. Enterobacter spp, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The most common pathogens in respiratory tract specimens were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (25%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (18%), and Acinetobacter baumanni (11%). The most common pathogens in blood and urine specimens were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antibiotic remaining the most active against all of the gram-negative bacilli for 7 years was imipenem (with a susceptibility rate of 87%), followed by cefoperazone/sulbactam (however, with a susceptibility rate decreasing from 86% to 75%), amikacin (75%), ceftazidime (73%), cefepime (72%), and piperacillin/tazobactam (71%). The susceptibility rate of Escherichia coli Klebsiella pneumoniae to imipenem remained 98% with a MIC(90) of 0.5 micro g/ml during the 7 years, much higher than those to amikacin (84%), ceftazidime (83%), cefoperazone/sulbactam (83%), piperacillin/tazobactam (80%), and cefepime (80%). The susceptibility rate of these two species to cefoperazone/sulbactam decreased from 90% in 1996 to 74% in 2001. While the susceptibility to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone decreased from 82% to 57%. The susceptibility rate of Escherichia coli to ciprofloxacin decreased from 54% to 25% and that of Klebsiella pneumoniae to ciprofloxacin decreased from 90% to 75%. The prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases in these two species increased from 11% in 1994 to 34% in 2001. The most active antibiotics against Enterobacter cloacae were imipenem, cefepime, amikacin with the susceptible rates of 95%, 76%, and 70%, respectively; the susceptibility rates of Citrobacter freundii to imipenem, cefepime, amikacin, and cefoperazone/sulbactam were 94%, 80%, 80%, and 78% respectively. Only 40% approximately 60% isolates of Enterobacter cloacae and Citrobacter freundii were susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins.
Imipenem remains highly active against Enterobacteriaceae, but the activities of other antibiotics have decreased in recent years.