Reactions of the Neurospora crassa nitrate reductase with NAD(P) analogs.Biochim Biophys Acta. 1977 Jan 11; 480(1):83-95.BB
The assimilatory NADPH-nitrate reductase (NADPH:nitrate oxidoreductase, EC 184.108.40.206) from Neurospora crassa is competitively inhibited by 3-aminopyridine adenine dinucleotide (AAD) and 3-aminopyridine adenine dinucleotide phosphate (AADP) which are structural analogs of NAD and NADP, respectively. The amino group of the pyridine ring of AAD(P) can react with nitrous acid to yield the diazonium derivative which may covalently bind at the NAD(P) site. As a result of covalent attachment, diazotized AAD(P) causes time-dependent irreversible inactivation of nitrate reductase. However, only the NADPH-dependent activities of the nitrate reductase, i.e. the overall NADPH-nitrate reductase and the NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activities, are inactivated. The reduced methyl viologen- and reduced FAD-nitrate reductase activities which do not utilize NADPH are not inhibited. This inactivation by diazotized AADP is prevented by 1 mM NADP. The inclusion of 1 muM FAD can also prevent inactivation, but the FAD effect differs from the NADP protection in that even after removal of the exogenous FAD by extensive dialysis or Sephadex G-25 filtration chromatography, the enzyme is still protected against inactivation. The FAD-generated protected form of nitrate reductase could again be inactivated if the enzyme was treated with NADPH, dialyzed to remove the NADPH, and then exposed to diazotized AADP. When NADP was substituted for NADPH in this experiment, the enzyme remained in the FAD-protected state. Difference spectra of the inactivated nitrate reductase demonstrated the presence of bound AADP, and titration of the sulfhydryl groups of the inactivated enzyme revealed that a loss of accessible sulfhydryls had occurred. The hypothesis generated by these experiments is that diazotized AADP binds at the NADPH site on nitrate reductase and reacts with a functional sulfhydryl at the site. FAD protects the enzyme against inactivation by modifying the sulfhydryl. Since NADPH reverses this protection, it appears the modifications occurring are oxidation-reduction reactions. On the basis of these results, the physiological electron flow in the nitrate reductase is postulated to be from NADPH via sulfhydryls to FAD and then the remainder of the electron carriers as follows: NADPH leads to -SH leads to FAD leads to cytochrome b-557 leads to Mo leads to NO-3.